Meat Curing Plus Sausage Making Information Part 3
Hints For Handling Of Meats
One of the great causes of failure in the curing and handling of meat products was the lack of materials that were always uniform, pure, and dependable.
Adolph Heller, studied the causes of failure in the handling of meats, with the aim of always producing the best and most uniform products that could be made. He was so successful in his business that his products were known and recognized as the best that could be made.
FRESH TRIPE AND PIGS FEET
Fresh Tripe and Fresh Pig’s Feet turn dark and spoil very easily, but by placing them every evening in a Cold-Storine solution made of one pound of Cold-Storine dissolved in three gallons of water, they can be kept in a good condition for a number of days.
Every morning they may be taken out of the solution, and those not sold during the day should be put back into the Cold-Storine solution overnight. The solution for Tripe and Pig’s Feet should not be used for storing anything else in it.
SWEET BREADS AND BRAINS.
Sweet Breads and Brains can also be kept in the same way as Tripe and Pig’s Feet.
PICKLED PIGS FEET
First:—Clean the Feet as carefully as possible and then cure them in brine made as follows:
6 lbs. of Salt.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
5 gals. of Water.
The Feet should be cured in this brine from four to five days. This brine can be used over and over again for curing Pickled Pigs Feet until it becomes thick from the substances drawn out of the Feet.
Second:—After the Feet have been cured for four or five days, cook them as follows: Heat a kettle of water boiling hot; then throw the Pigs Feet into it and keep the heat on until the water begins to boil; then check the fire or steam, and simply let the water simmer just as slowly as possible until the Feet are nicely cooked.
The slower they cook, the better, and they ought to remain in the hot water for about four hours when cooked at a low temperature.
Third:—When they are cooked through, turn on cold water and let the water overflow until all the heat is out of them, and nothing but cold water overflows, and then let the Feet cool well.
Fourth:—Split the Feet through the center and pack them. If they are to be packed in tierces and kept on hand for any length of time, the vinegar that is put over them should be 60 grains strong, but when they are packed in small packages for immediate use 40 grains is strong enough.
Fifth:--When packing the Feet add to every 100 lbs. 8 to 10 ounces of Zanzibar Brand Pickled Tongue Seasoning.
STORING PICKLED PIGS FEET
There are certain seasons of the year when Pickled Pigs Feet are in great demand, while there are other seasons when they are a slow sale. We, therefore, give here a formula for keeping Pickled Pigs Feet in vinegar so they can be kept for one year if necessary in a perfect condition.
Salt, cure, and boil the Pigs Feet the same as above, but instead of boiling them all done, boil them only about half done; then split them and put them in tierces and fill the tierces with 60-grain vinegar and store them in cold storage. The 60-grain vinegar has a tendency to soften the meat.
After they have been in this strength of vinegar for some length of time, they will become soft just as if they were thoroughly cooked, but if it is necessary to use them before they are soft, roll them into the engine room or in a place where it is very warm, and turn the tierces on their end.
Keep the top of the barrel covered with water—we mean on the top of the head—so that the head will not dry. The bottom of the barrel will not shrink and dry because the vinegar on the inside keeps it moistened, but if the top is not kept wet the barrel will shrink and begin to leak.
By allowing the Pigs Feet, which are packed in strong vinegar, to remain in a very warm place for a week or so, they will become nice and tender; they are then to be repacked with 40-grain vinegar in small packages for the market.
Select Tripe that is fresh and has not been lying around long enough to attract the bacteria ever-present in the air.
Tripe should be prepared by thoroughly cleaning and washing the paunch in at least three or four changes of water. After that, a tub of cold water 151 should be prepared and a lump of unslaked lime, the size of an English Walnut, should be added to about 50 gallons of water. Allow the lime to dissolve and then stir the water to thoroughly mix it.
In this solution place, the washed Tripe and allow it to soak for five or six hours. The water should be kept cold. A small piece of ice may be put in the water if necessary. Before the Tripe is put into the last soaking water, the inside should be scraped with a hog-scraper so as to remove the inside skin.
The outside film or skin should also be scraped off. The boiling vessel should be thoroughly washed before the Tripe is placed in it for cooking. If there is any foreign substance whatsoever in the kettle, it will discolor the Tripe.
On the other hand, it may be turned out perfectly white if the boiling vessel is in proper condition. Two ounces of B. Heller & Co.’s Lard Purifier mixed in 50 gallons of boiling water will assist to keep the Tripe White.
Scald the Tripe thoroughly and scrape both sides well with a hog-scraper. The Tripe is then ready to be cooked.
In cooking, allow the water to come to the boiling point. It should then be reduced to a simmer until the Tripe is thoroughly cooked. When cooked, cold water should be turned on and allowed to overflow until the Tripe has thoroughly cooled.
After it is thoroughly cooled, pack in tierces with vinegar that is 60 degrees strong. Always use White Wine Vinegar. If it is desired to ship Tripe after it has been vinegar-cured, it should be repacked in vinegar 40 degrees strong.
To give the Tripe a nice flavor, add to every 100 lbs. of Tripe 8 to 10 ounces of Zanzibar Brand Pickled Tongue Seasoning.
Many have trouble through their inability to cook Tripe tender. This, in most cases, is owing to the fact that the Tripe is boiled too much in water that is too hot. Water in which Tripe is being cooked should be allowed to come to a boil, after that, it should be put on a slow fire where it will cook the Tripe by simmering.
A simmer is water that is hot, but not boiling or 155 to 160 degrees. Boiling water will always shrink and toughen Tripe. It will take longer to cook some Tripe than others, depending upon the age of the animal from which it is taken. Tripe should be allowed to simmer until it is cooked tender.
The following directions will make a delicious Mince Meat:
Take 4 lbs. of lean Beef, boil it until it is fairly well cooked, and then chop or grind it very fine.
Add 8 lbs. of Hard Green Apples, cut into small cubes.
1 lb. of very finely chopped suet.
3 lbs. of seeded Raisins.
2 lbs. of Picked Currants, carefully washed and dried.
2 to 5 lbs. of Citron, cut up into small pieces.
1 lb. of Brown Sugar.
1 pint Cooking Molasses (pure New Orleans Molasses is the best, and it must be free from Glucose).
1 quart of Sweet Cider.
1 Tablespoonful of Salt.
1 Teaspoonful of Ground Black Pepper.
1 Teaspoonful of Mace.
1 Teaspoonful of Allspice.
½ Teaspoonful of Cinnamon.
A little grated Nutmeg.
A pinch of Cloves.
Mix the above thoroughly, then heat slowly on the stove and boil for half an hour.
If the Mince Meat is to be put in jars and sealed up tight, the hot Mince Meat should be put into pint and quart jars, the jars should be filled up to the brim and the tops screwed down tight immediately.
If the Mince Meat is to be kept in bulk and not sealed up in jars, add ½ pint of good Brandy after the Mince Meat has been cooked and allowed to become nearly cold, stirring the Brandy into the Mince Meat thoroughly and then pack into stone crocks, cover tightly and keep in a very cool place where the Mince Meat will not freeze. This Mince Meat will keep all winter.
The above quantities can be increased or decreased proportionately, according to the total amount of Mince Meat desired at one time.
Dry or concentrated Mince Meat is made the same as above, except that dried apples are used instead of fresh apples, and no liquids are added. Wet Mince Meat is better than dry and will give better satisfaction.
DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SOUSE
First:—Take nicely cleaned Pigs Feet, Pigs Snouts, Hocks, Tails or Ears, and put them in a kettle on a stove, or fire, or in a steam jacket kettle.
Second:—Add just enough cold water to entirely cover them.
Third:—Boil until the Meat can be removed from the bones.
Fourth:—Remove the Meat from the bones, and put it back into the water in which it was boiled; then add to this water enough White Wine Vinegar to give it a nice sour taste. The quantity of vinegar will depend upon its strength.
Fifth:—Add the following proportions of spice, which can be changed to suit the amount of Souse you are making. For 100 lbs. Souse use:
2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
8 to 10 oz. Zanzibar-Brand Pickled Tongue Seasoning.
Sixth:—Mix the spice with the Meat, and boil for about 15 minutes; then remove from the fire. Put the Souse into square tin pans, and allow it to set 24 hours before removal.
If desired, a lemon and 2 or 3 good-sized Onions may be cut into small pieces, and mixed in the Souse before it is boiled; some like this, and some prefer it without Onion or Lemon. Do not use too much Lemon as it will make the Souse taste bitter.
VINEGAR PICKLED PIG’S TONGUES
Take salted Pigs Tongues that have been cured for 30 days and scald them in hot water; then remove the skin and gullet. Boil slowly for three hours, the same as boiling Pigs Feet; the slower they are boiled the better; then cool the Tongues, in the same manner as directed for cooling Pigs Feet.
Another way is to take them out of the Brine and cook them, and then take off the skin and gullet after they are cooked.
When handling large quantities, this latter method will not work as well as the first method, because after the Tongues are boiled, they must be cooled in the same vat, and after they are cooled, the skin does not remove so easily. That is why it is better to scald them in boiling water first and then remove the skin and gullet, then boil them.
Split the tongues through the center and pack in Vinegar the same as Pigs Feet and add to every 100 lbs. of Tongues 8 to 10 ounces Zanzibar-Brand Pickled Tongue Seasoning.
Home-made horseradish is a relish that every household demands. It is impracticable to put grated horseradish upon the market except when bottled, as exposure to the air discolors it and dries it out.
An excellent bottled article that will prove a good keeper, as well as a good seller, can be made as follows: To ten parts of grated horseradish add one part of granulated sugar and one part of pure vinegar. In preparing horseradish none but white wine vinegar should be used. One of the best means of getting new trade is for a Butcher to sell homemade grated horseradish.
Select sound cabbages and peel off the first or damaged leaves, then slice or shave with a cabbage cutter as fine as possible. The object desired in making first-class Sauer Kraut is to obtain a perfect fermentation under pressure with the aid of salt alone.
The brine, therefore, results from the water contained in the salt and cabbage, with no water being added. First secure a good strong cask, which should be well scalded and cleaned.
Sprinkle on the bottom of this cask a small quantity of salt, then put in a layer of cabbage, and while adding the cabbage sprinkle some salt through it, so that the salt is as much divided as possible and then tamp well with a wooden tamper, so as to pack it as tight and solid as possible.
Continue putting in a layer of cabbage and tamping this way until the barrel is full. The salt to be used should always be of the best grade and one pound of salt to one hundred pounds of cabbage should be used but may be varied according to the taste. Some prefer it saltier than others.
After the cask is filled or as full as desired, the cabbage should be covered with a clean cloth on which should be laid hardwood boards. Use the boards taken out of the head of a whiskey barrel or tierce as this makes the best cover, as they fit in the barrel and are made of hardwood and will not give the cabbage a taste.
Carefully weight the boards down with heavy stones, always remembering that the fermentation should be accomplished under pressure. Once a week take off the stone, board, and cloth from the cabbage and wash them clean and replace the cloth and boards and stones on top of the barrel after they have been washed.
By repeating the washing of the boards and cloth and stones every week, the top of the cabbage will be kept perfectly sweet and the foam which comes to the top is removed, so that the top of the Sauer Kraut will be as good as that in the bottom of the barrel.
The Kraut should be left to ripen for about four weeks in a warm temperature. It is always best not to offer it for sale until it has sufficiently ripened and is tender and juicy and that it has the proper flavor. This can only occur after perfect fermentation has taken place.
This sauce is easily prepared and is in considerable demand by some trades. Select good, firm, green tomatoes, wash them thoroughly, and cut away all defective portions of the tomatoes. They should then be sliced or quartered and placed in a salt brine made with one pound of salt to each gallon of water with a supply of green peppers. Let them cure in this brine for two weeks.
They may then be taken out and chopped very fine, about ⅛ to ¼ inch in diameter. They are then ready for the vinegar, which should be pure in quality, the white wine vinegar is preferred.
The vinegar should be first prepared or sweetened and spiced with pure granulated cane sugar, cloves, cinnamon, mustard seed, and a small quantity of celery seed. This can be poured over the chopped tomatoes and peppers, either hot or cold. Piccalilli should be sold nearly or quite strained of its vinegar.
Chow Chow is a popular sauce that can be readily prepared. It is strictly a Chinese innovation that was introduced to the American palate during the first immigration of Chinamen. It is merely the cucumber pickle cut up into small pieces with the addition of cauliflower, onions, etc., over which is poured a preparation of mustard, vinegar, and various condiments which taste may demand.
Chow Chow is a good keeper and a good seller, but in order to retain its flavor and color, it should be carefully covered and kept from exposure to the air.
All butchers should put up homemade pickles of all kinds and such relishes as horseradish and Sauer Kraut. Dill pickles are very popular and they are always salable in the butcher shop. They may be made as follows: Select large pickles of as near an even size as possible and soak in water overnight; then wash them thoroughly.
Next, take a barrel and put a layer of dill about one inch thick on the bottom of it, upon which place the pickles three layers deep. Over these pickles place another layer of dill and repeat the layer of pickles as in the first instance.
Continue this operation of the layer of dill and then pickles until the barrel is as full as desired, leaving sufficient space for the brine. The brine should be made of the best quality of salt, using ½ lb. to each gallon of water. Brine thus made will make the natural soft home-cured dill pickles.
After the brine has been placed over the pickles, place them in a cooler and let them ripen for about four weeks. The ripening process may be quickened for about two weeks by leaving the pickles in a room of moderate temperature. Some prefer dill pickles hard and for such taste, it is necessary to put a little alum in the brine.
Pickles treated with alum must be labeled to show this. A piece about as big as an egg for a full barrel of pickles is the proper amount. Dissolve this in the brine. This will keep the pickles firm and hard. It will be found, however, that most tastes prefer the natural brine without the alum, as the soft pickle seems to have a more appetizing flavor.
There is no appetizer more appreciated than the dill pickle and it comes nearer appealing to the general trade than most any relish that can be offered.
HOW TO DRESS POULTRY
The Butcher who will make a specialty of dressed poultry will make a hit with his customers and good profit on sales if he will be careful to get his Chickens dressed decently, and to educate his customers to pay prices that will be commensurate with the quality of the meat offered.
Very often it is almost an impossibility for the consumer to secure sweet, untainted Poultry Meat. Much of this trouble is owing to the fact that large shippers kill the Chickens, dry pick them or scald them, and the food that remains in the intestines ferments and taints the meat, with the result that the Chicken, when cooked, has an abominable taste.
When a Butcher is so situated that he can dress his own Chickens, and he would be fully justified in making all preparations in that direction, he ought to open, draw and wash out thoroughly every chicken as fast as it is killed, just as he would wash out Hogs, Calves or Sheep.
Chickens that have been nicely drawn and washed immediately upon killing are always sweet in flavor, and the Butcher who will take the pains to offer such goods and to acquaint his customers of their quality can not only establish a large trade 159 and a great reputation, but he can offer the public an article that is pure and sweet, and difficult to obtain.
No doubt he could command the Chicken trade of any neighborhood by this means, down all competition, and obtain good prices for his Meat, as people would be willing to pay for the original weight of the chicken before drawing, and at the same time would be much better satisfied with what they get.
If desired, the Butcher could weigh the chickens after they are dressed, tag and draw them, and then could say to his customers: “This Chicken weighed so much before it was drawn, but in order to retain the sweetness of the meat, we draw it as it ought to be drawn, wash it out, and sell it to you for just what it is worth.” A Butcher’s statement upon these points would not be doubted.
Furthermore, the Butcher would not lose anything by this method, as Chickens shrink after they are dressed and kept two or three days before sold. The loss from this shrinkage is considerable. Therefore, the trouble and expense of drawing Chickens and handling them in the manner described would be fully repaid.
STICKY FLY PAPER
Every Butcher can make his own Sticky Fly Paper with very little trouble. It is made as follows:
1 lb. Rosin.
3½ oz. Molasses.
3½ oz. Boiled Linseed Oil.
Boil the three together until they get thick enough and then spread on heavy Manilla paper. The proper and quickest way is to take a sheet of heavy Manilla paper and spread the mixture on half of the surface of it, then double the paper over; the mixture put on the half will be quite sufficient to coat the face of the other half that is doubled over on it.
The cost of making this sticky fly paper is very small and in an hour any Butcher can make enough Sticky Fly Paper to last the entire summer.
One of the things much neglected in many butcher shops is the making of Lard. Butchers who do not cut up enough hogs to have fat for making Lard each day, allow the fat to accumulate until they have sufficient so as to make it worth their while to render it.
Many butchers do not keep this fat in the icebox, but let it stand anywhere because they imagine that it does not spoil; then, when they make Lard out of it, they wonder why the Lard is not better.
Lard should always be made as soon as possible, and the fat trimmings should be kept in the cooler and not allowed to remain standing around in a warm place. To make high-grade Kettle-Rendered Lard, always cut the rinds off of the fat.
The rinds can be put into pickle and stored until a quantity has accumulated and then they can be cooked and utilized in Liver Sausage, Head Cheese, or Blood Sausage. When the rind is cooked with the lard, it always causes more or less detriment to the lard.
Before rendering, if one has the machinery, the fat should be run through a regular fat hasher or a Meat Grinder, and it should be ground up into small pieces. The smaller it is ground the better, for if the fatty tissues are thoroughly mangled and disintegrated, the oil will separate more readily when the heat is applied.
Those butchers not having a machine in which they can cut up the fat should cut it into small pieces by hand.
For making Kettle-Rendered Lard a steam jacket kettle is the best, but if one does not have steam, a common caldron will answer, but great care must be taken not to scorch the lard or allow it to become too hot when a caldron is used.
RENDERING LARD IN JACKET KETTLE OR CALDRON
Before putting the fat into the kettle, put in a gallon of water for every 100 lbs. of fat, as the water prevents the lard from scorching. Then put in all the fat to be rendered and start the fire or slowly turn on the steam, as the case may be.
In rendering Lard the heat should be brought up gradually so that quite a little of the fat is melted before the full heat is applied. If the heat is brought up too rapidly, it will cause the Lard to be darker in color than when it is gradually heated.
Lard should be boiled about 1½ hours after the entire mass is boiling.
Those butchers who wish to render their Lard scientifically, with the aid of a thermometer, can do so by hanging a thermometer in the Lard and bringing the temperature gradually up to 255 to 260 degrees Fahrenheit, and then turn off the steam or check the fire, as the case may be, and allow the Lard to cook slowly until it is finished.
A butcher can always tell when the Lard has cooked sufficiently by the way the cracklings press out.
After the Lard has all been tried out, skim out all the cracklings, put them into a press, and press out all the Lard, adding what is pressed out to that in the kettle.
Now the Lard is ready to be strained through a piece of cheesecloth.
IF ONE HAS A LARD SETTLING TANK, HANDLE THE LARD AS FOLLOWS:
After treating the Lard as directed, with Lard Purifier and water, and after the Lard has been treated enough to make it foam, and the foam has been skimmed off, dip the Lard and water out of the kettle, run it through a piece of cheesecloth into the settling tank.
A settling tank is simply a galvanized iron tank with a large faucet at the bottom. The bottom can be made to taper to the center and the faucet placed in the center, so all the water can be drained off, or the bottom can be made flat with the faucet close to the bottom, and the tank can be set slanting, so the water or Lard will all drain out.
After the Lard is in the settling tank, let it settle for one or two hours, according to the size of the tank and quantity of Lard in it. Then drain off all the water and the impurities which have settled to the bottom. After these are drawn off, the Lard is ready to be run into buckets, which should be placed in the icebox to cool.
A better way is to let the Lard settle in the settling tank and, after the water is drawn off, stir the Lard with a large paddle until it is thick and creamy, and then it should be put into buckets. By letting it cool in the settling tank and stirring it until it is thick and creamy, Lard will have a much better appearance when cold than Lard that is run into buckets hot.
HOW TO PURIFY LARD WITH ONLY A COMMON RENDERING KETTLE
After the Lard has been rendered as above, treat as follows: The kettle must not be too full of Lard; it should not be more than three-fourths full when being treated with the Purifier.
Put a thermometer into the Lard to test the temperature. If the temperature of the Lard is below 200 degrees Fahrenheit, add to every 100 lbs. of Lard 3 ounces of B. Heller & Co.’s Lard Purifier, dissolved in one quart of water. For example, if the kettle contains 400 lbs. of rendered Lard, add 12 ounces of Lard Purifier dissolved in one gallon of water.
Should the temperature of the Lard be over 200 degrees F., do not add the Lard Purifier and water, but let the Lard stand for half an hour or so until the temperature comes below 200 degrees.
If the Lard Purifier and water are added to the Lard when it is as high as 212 degrees F., the water will at once be converted into steam as soon as it gets into the Lard, because water is converted into steam at that temperature.
When the Lard Purifier and water are added to Lard that is too hot, the Lard will foam up and boil over; but, when the Lard is below 200 degrees F. and the Lard Purifier and water are added, it will not boil up.
After adding the Lard Purifier and water, take a paddle and stir the Lard thoroughly, so the Lard Purifier is mixed thoroughly with every part of the Lard; then turn on the steam or build up the fire slowly, as the case may be, and heat the Lard up to 212 degrees F. The minute 212 degrees is reached the Lard will begin to foam.
When the Lard gets to this point, it should not be left for a moment, because if it gets too hot it will boil over the top of the kettle; but if one stays right with it when it begins to foam, and checks the fire, it will not boil over but will foam a little and most of the impurities will rise to the top of the Lard.
Now stop the fire and skim off all the impurities on the top of the Lard and allow the Lard to settle for about two hours when all the water and the smaller impurities that did not rise to the top will have separated from the Lard and will be at the bottom, and one will be surprised at the amount of impurities that will thus be separated from the Lard.
If the kettle has a faucet at the bottom, draw off the water and the impurities which have settled and then run off the Lard. Should the kettle not have an opening at the bottom, dip out the Lard from the top, being careful not to dip out any of the water which will be at the bottom.
When most of the Lard has been taken out, that remaining, which is near the water, can be dipped out together with the water, and put in a bucket or tub, and allowed to harden.
The lard will float on the top and when hard can easily be taken off from the top of the water and should be kept until the next Lard is rendered when it should be re-melted with the next batch of Lard.
Before running the Lard into buckets, it is always well to run it through a piece of cheesecloth, so as to remove any small pieces of detached cracklings. It is advisable to put the Lard into the icebox as soon as it is run into buckets, so as to set it, which will prevent the separation of the oil from the Stearin.
IF ONE HAS NO SETTLING TANK, BUT SIMPLY HAS A RENDERING KETTLE AND AN AGITATOR, HANDLE LARD AS FOLLOWS:
First:—Render the Lard in the Rendering Kettle, and treat it with B. Heller & Co.’s Lard Purifier, the same as directed in the foregoing. After it is treated, run the Lard through two or three thicknesses of cheesecloth, into the Agitator.
Allow it to settle in the Agitator for two hours, then run off all the water from the bottom, and start the Agitator. The Lard should be agitated until it is thick like cream, then it is ready to run off.
We, however, recommend that Lard should be taken from the Rendering Kettle and put into the Settling Tank and allowed to settle, and then the Lard should be run from the Settling Tank through the faucet about an inch above the bottom, into the Lard Cooler, and while in the Cooler it should be agitated until it becomes thick.
There are always small particles of charred tissue which will settle to the bottom of the Settling Tank, which cannot be gotten out in any other way, and the Lard will be whiter and purer if allowed to settle in the Settling Tank and then drawn off into the Cooler.
IF ONE HAS A LARD SETTLING TANK AND AN AGITATOR, HANDLE THE LARD AS FOLLOWS:
A Packer or Butcher who makes any quantity at all of Kettle Rendered Lard should have a Rendering Kettle in which the Lard is rendered, a Settling Tank in which the Lard is settled, and a Lard Cooler with an Agitator in it. The Lard Cooler and Agitator should be double-jacketed, so that cold water can be run into the jacket to cool the Lard.
When equipping a plant with a Settling Tank and Cooler, we advise that the Settling Tank have two faucets in it; one at the extreme bottom and the other about one inch from the bottom.
Then, when the water is drawn off of the Settling Tank, it should be drawn off from the lowest faucet, and when the Lard is drawn off into the Agitator, it should be run off through the faucet which is an inch from the bottom. In this way, small particles which may be in the Lard will remain in the bottom of the Settling Tank, in the one-inch layer of Lard which remains in the bottom of the Settling Tank.
After all the Lard is run off through the upper faucet, what remains between the upper faucet and the bottom of the Settling Tank should be drawn off through the lower faucet and should be kept until the next time Lard is rendered, and then should be re-rendered with the next batch.
After the Lard has been rendered and has been treated in the Rendering Kettle, with the Lard Purifier, strain it through a cheesecloth into the Settling Tank, allow it to settle for two hours, then draw off all the water from the bottom faucet.
After the water has been drawn off, draw off the Lard from the top faucet and again run it through cheesecloth, into the 166 Cooler and Agitator. Start the Agitator and allow it to run until the Lard is thick and white, like cream, and then run it off into buckets or tubs.
A good way to set up the Settling Tank and the Cooler and Agitator is to have the Settling Tank high enough up, on a bench above the Agitator, so that the Lard can be run out of the Settling Tank into the Agitator. The Cooler and Agitator should also be high enough from the floor so the Lard can be run from it into buckets or tubs.
It costs very little to properly equip oneself with the proper apparatus, and if properly rigged up it is a pleasure to make the Lard and requires very little work.
HOW TO PURIFY RENDERED LARD
First:—Put 100 lbs. of water into the lard kettle and add to it one-quarter to one-half pound of B. Heller & Co.’s Lard Purifier; then on top of the water put 100 lbs. of the rendered Lard.
Second:—If a steam kettle is used, turn on the steam; and if the kettle is heated by fire, start the fire; the heat should be applied slowly and must be closely watched so that the Lard does not get too hot and boil over.
In no case should more Lard and water be put into the kettle than to fill it one-half full? By thus having the kettle only half full leaves plenty of room for the Lard to boil and foam and prevents it from boiling over the top of the kettle.
Third:—While the Lard is being heated stay right with it at the kettle to watch it and continually stir it.
Fourth:—When the Lard begins to boil check the fire and let it simmer from 10 to 15 minutes, then put out the fire or turn off the steam and let the Lard settle for about three hours; all the impurities that come to the top skim off carefully.
Fifth:—After the Lard has settled for three hours all the water will be at the bottom. If the kettle is provided with a faucet at the bottom so the water can be let off, let the water run out slowly until it is all drained out; if the kettle has no opening in the bottom, skim the Lard off from the top of the water and place the Lard in a Lard Cooler.
If you have a 167 Lard Cooler with an Agitator, start the Agitator and keep it running until the Lard gets thick like cream; it is then ready to run off into buckets. If you have no regular Agitator, it is necessary to stir the Lard by hand occasionally until it gets thick and creamy; stir it as much as possible until it gets thick, and then run it into buckets.
LARD NOT PURIFIED
If Lard is made without taking out the impurities with water and our Lard Purifier, the Lard will become rancid if it is to be kept during the hot weather, and it will not be so sweet in flavor nor as clean and white as it is when treated with our Purifier according to the preceding directions.
Our Lard Purifier neutralizes the free fatty acids in the Lard, thus to a considerable extent preventing rancidity and helps keep the Lard Sweet and Pure.
Lard made with our Lard Purifier according to the foregoing directions will comply with the regulations under the various Pure Food Laws.
In the Southern States, where the climate is warm, it is necessary to add either Tallow or Tallow Stearin or Lard Stearin to Lard, so as to stiffen it in order that it can be handled at all.
To make Compound Lard, first, render the Lard and press out the cracklings as directed; then add from 10 to 20 percent of either Tallow, Tallow Stearin, or Lard Stearin and stir until it is all melted and thoroughly mixed with the Lard. The quantity of Tallow or Stearin to add depends upon the climate and season of the year, and also the price of the different materials.
After adding the above, purify the mixture, the same as directed for handling Pure Lard. However, Compound Lard must always be agitated until it is thick and cream-like before it is run into buckets. If one has no Lard Agitator, it must be stirred by hand until it is stiff and cool.
It is perfectly legal to add Tallow, Tallow Stearin, or Lard Stearin to Lard for this purpose, but such 168 Lard must be sold as Compound Lard. It cannot be sold as “Pure Lard” when these ingredients are added to it.
COTTON SEED OIL-LARD COMPOUNDS
For certain purposes, Cotton Seed Oil added to Lard is preferred to straight Lard, and the Cotton Seed Oil is added after the Lard has been purified and is ready to put in the Agitator.
To make a really good Compound Lard, a Cooler with an Agitator is absolutely necessary, but if one hasn’t a cooler with Agitator, it can be done by stirring by hand continuously, so the Lard and Oil do not separate while cooling.
When Cotton Seed Oil is used, it must be Refined Cotton Seed Oil, and the more it is refined the better the compound will be. Lard should always be run through cheesecloth before putting it in the Lard Cooler, so as to take out any small particles of detached cracklings which may remain in the Lard.
The formula for making Compound Lard with Cotton Seed Oil varies according to the relative values of the ingredients and the quality of the Compound desired. The usual Compounds found on the market, as sold at the present time under trade names, and which contain no Lard at all, are made of 80 percent Cotton Seed Oil and 20 percent Tallow Stearin. (Tallow Stearin is Tallow with the oil pressed out of it.)
A small butcher can make this Compound by using 80 percent Cotton Seed Oil and 20 percent Rendered Tallow, which has previously been purified with B. Heller & Co.’s Lard Purifier.
If it is desired to make a better quality of Compound, use less Cotton Seed Oil and add sufficient Lard to bring the cost and quality to the desired degree.
All such Compounds must be sold as “Compound Lard” when Lard is added; but when no Lard is added, they must be sold as “Lard Substitutes.” These preparations are perfectly legal and comply with the Pure Food Laws provided they are labeled and sold for what they are, but no one should make a Lard Compound or Imitation Lard and sell it for Pure Lard.
REFINING LARD WITH FULLER’S EARTH
THE METHOD USED FOR REFINING LARD IN LARGE PACKING HOUSES
The large packers all refine Lard and Tallow with the Fuller’s Earth process, and for the benefit of the small packers, who would like to know how it is done, we will give the full directions, although a small packing house can hardly afford to put in a plant for the process, as it requires a man who is experienced to refine Lard and Tallow in this manner.
If a packing house does not make enough Lard and Tallow to afford to keep a man especially for this purpose, it will not pay to put in a refinery, which consists of the following machinery:
A Receiving Kettle, which is a large open tank with steam coils in it to dry the Lard or a large Jacket Kettle will do. A Clay Kettle, which is a tank with steam coils in it for heating the Lard and an air pipe at the bottom of it connected to an air compressor. A Lard Cooler with Agitator to cool and stir the Lard while it sets so as to have it thoroughly mixed. A Pump, Air Compressor and Filter Press.
An ordinary size outfit will cost from $2,000 to $3,000.
First, the Lard, Tallow, or Cotton Seed Oil, which is termed stock, is placed in the Clay Kettle. The Clay Kettle is simply an iron jacket with a coil in the bottom of it through which air is pumped. In this kettle, the Fuller’s Earth is added.
To each and every 100 lbs. of stock, there is added from one to two lbs. of Fuller’s Earth; the quantity depends upon the grade of stock. Before the stock is treated a small test is made as follows.
A small quantity is heated; in a part of it, one percent of clay is put, in another part 1½ percent, and in another two percent. Mix each lot thoroughly, put them into a funnel over filter paper and allow them to filter.
By examining these samples, one can tell how much earth to use to the stock in the kettle. This must be done when the stock varies. Of course, when the Lard, Tallow, or Oil are running uniform, it is not necessary to take the test, but where the stock changes, it is always advisable to test before treating, for the reason that too much Fuller’s Earth put into the stock will give the Lard an objectionable flavor.
Before stock of any kind can be treated with Fuller’s Earth, all the moisture must be out of it; Lard usually contains two to three percent of moisture, and very often considerably more, so it must be heated in a Jacket Kettle until all the water is evaporated.
If there is any water in the Lard, the Fuller’s Earth attacks the water first, and the Lard is not affected, because wet Fuller’s Earth has absolutely no effect upon Lard. When the Fuller’s Earth is added to Lard, it must be 155 degrees hot; Tallow must be 185 degrees hot, and Cotton Seed Oil 140 degrees hot.
After the desired heat is obtained, regulate the steam so the temperature will remain stationary, turn on the air, and when it is blowing hard, put in the Fuller’s Earth and blow for about 20 minutes; then start the force pump and pump the stock through the Filter Press.
If the stock is of fine quality and only a small percentage of Fuller’s Earth is used, it can be pumped directly into the Receiving Kettle, but if a large percentage of Fuller’s Earth is used, it is advisable to let the Lard run back into the Clay Kettle, and keep on letting it run through the filter and pumping it around until it is thoroughly clarified; then allow it to run into the Receiving Kettle.
If inferior stock is used, sometimes as much as four and five percent of Fuller’s Earth is used to refine it, but it is not advisable to use that large amount as the clay gives off an odor that the stock sometimes absorbs. Always use the least amount of clay that good judgment indicates will do the work, and after pumping through the filter, if it is not as it should be add more clay and refilter it.
To make Compound Lard, treat the different stocks separately, run them in different tanks, and then mix them. After they have been put into the receiving tank or the mixing tank, it is advisable to mix them by blowing air into the bottom of the kettle in which are Lard, Tallow, and Oil; this will mix even better than any process or method that we know of.
The amount or kind of stock to be used depends upon the season of the year, and the kind and quantity of goods you wish to make. Equal parts of Tallow, Lard, and Oil make a very good Compound. All the cloths for the Filter Press should be washed every day after using them as they must be kept perfectly clean; the cleaner the better.
After the Compound Lard has been thoroughly mixed it must be put into an Agitator and agitated until it is thick like cream before it is run off into buckets.
HOW TO RENDER TALLOW WHITE, ODORLESS, FLAKY AND SOFT, LIKE LARD IN TEXTURE
It is an easy matter to render Tallow so it will have a very light color, in fact, will be almost white and at the same time flaky and soft like Lard, if the instructions which follow are carried out.
When so rendered, the Tallow will sell at a good price, as it will be entirely free from a tallowy odor, and is an excellent thing for baking purposes. Tallow rendered according to these instructions can be mixed with Lard and it will even improve the Lard. But it must be sold for what it is.
Take Beef Suet and all the Beef Fat trimmed from steaks and other cuts, and run it through a Chopper, chopping it very fine. It will thus become soft and sticky so it can be rolled in small balls about one and one-half to two inches in diameter.
While this is being done, fill Rendering Kettle half full of water, dissolving in the water about two ounces of Lard Purifier to every 100 lbs. of Tallow to be rendered and start it to boil. While the water is boiling the small balls of Tallow should be placed on top of the water until a sufficient number of balls have been thus put into the water to make a layer three or four inches deep, but not deeper.
After the Tallow is rendered out of the balls, the heat should be turned off and the Tallow should be permitted to cool. Just as soon as the boiling has ceased, all the cracklings that are on the surface should be skimmed off, put into a press and 172 pressed out.
The Tallow that is on the surface should be skimmed off and put into buckets. Care should be taken that no water is taken out with the hot Tallow. The tallow which remains on the water can be left there until it is hard when it can be taken off and melted if desired, and then run into buckets.
The advantage in rendering Tallow in this manner is to prevent the Tallow from becoming too hot, and thus to keep it from turning dark; besides, the water and Lard Purifier purifies the Tallow and also draws out the tallowy odor.
Any butcher can build up a large trade on home-rendered tallow when it is prepared in this manner. In fact, his trade will like the Tallow so well that he will not be able to supply the demand.
As a rule, the butcher sells his Tallow unrendered at a low price, but if he will render it himself and follow the above instructions carefully, he can sell the Tallow for at least 10 to 12 cents per pound, owing to the fact that Tallow rendered in this manner produces a very fine fat for cooking purposes. We believe it is much better than Lard.
NEAT’S FOOT OIL
Neat’s Foot Oil is made by simply boiling the feet of cattle in a water bath, in an open kettle. The oil will come out of the feet and float on the top of the water. After the oil has been cooked out of the feet, they should be skimmed out of the kettle. The oil should then be treated with our Lard Purifier, the same way as directed for treating Lard.
Simply let the water and fat cool down to 200 degrees Fahrenheit or below, and to every 100 lbs. of oil add about four ounces of our Lard Purifier dissolved in a quart of water.
Stir the water, Lard Purifier, and Neat’s Foot Oil thoroughly, and then start up the fire and bring it to a boil. Skim off any foam and impurities that may come to the surface and then stop the fire and allow it to settle for about two hours; then skim the oil off of the top of the water and you will have genuine, sweet, and refined Neat’s Foot Oil.
KILLING ON THE FARM
Very often butchers in the smaller towns find it convenient to slaughter livestock in the country where it is purchased. In order to meet such cases we submit the following directions for slaughtering cattle, hogs, and sheep, and no doubt they will be found useful and suggestive.
It is absolutely necessary that only healthy animals shall be slaughtered for food. It is not so important that stock should be fat, although no one can expect the best results from lean animals, but as there is a demand for all grades of meat, the condition is not so exacting as health.
In the case of injured animals, crushed ribs, broken limbs, etc., the flesh is not good for food unless the stock has been slaughtered immediately upon receiving the injuries.
AGE FOR KILLING
It is a well-known fact that the meat of old animals is tougher than that of young ones. The flesh of young animals frequently lacks flavor and is not solid. An old animal in proper condition and good health is preferable as food to a younger one in poorer condition.
Cattle if properly fed are fit for beef at 12 to 24 months, although the meat from these animals often lacks flavor, especially if they have not been well fed. The best meat is from aged steers 30 to 40 months old. A calf should not be slaughtered under four weeks and is not at its best until about eight weeks of age. There is a law in many States confiscating veal offered on the market under six weeks of age.
Pigs may be used after six weeks but the most profitable age at which to slaughter hogs is between eight months and one year.
Sheep may be used from 3 to 4 months of age, but are at their best from eight to twelve months.
PREPARING FOR SLAUGHTER
Experience dictates that an animal intended for slaughter should be kept from eating for twenty-four to thirty-six hours before killing. If kept on full feed the system is gorged and the blood, loaded with assimilated nutrients, is pumped to the extremities of the capillaries.
It is impossible to thoroughly drain the blood from the veins when the animal is bled, and the result will be a reddish-colored, unattractive carcass. Again, food in the stomach decomposes very rapidly after the animal is slaughtered.
Where the dressing is slow, as it must be on the farm, the gases generated from the stomach often flavor the meat. It is well to give water freely up to the time of slaughter as it aids in keeping the temperature normal and helps in cleaning out the system, resulting in a nicer colored carcass.
It is but natural that the condition of animals prior to slaughter should have a positive effect on the keeping qualities of the meat. There should be no excitement sufficient to raise the temperature of the body. Excitement creates fever, prevents proper drainage of the blood vessels, and, if intense, will cause souring of the meat very soon after dressing.
No animal should be killed after a long drive or rapid run about the pasture. It is always better in such cases to permit the animal to rest overnight rather than to risk spoiling the meat. The flesh of an animal that has been overheated and then killed is usually of a dark color and frequently develops a sour odor within a few hours after dressing.
Bruises cause blood to settle in the affected portions of the body, often causing the loss of a considerable part of the carcass. A 24-hour fast, ample water, careful handling, and rest are necessary in order that the meat may be in the best condition for immediate use or curing.
KILLING AND DRESSING CATTLE
The first step in killing is to secure the animal so that, in no emergency, it can escape. Use a rope one inch in diameter. Put a slip noose in one end with a knot just far enough from the noose to prevent choking when drawn tight, but it should at the same time allow the noose to draw tight enough so that there is no danger of escape, in the event of the rope becoming slack.
If the animal has horns, pass the noose over the head, back of the ear, and horn on the right side, but in front of the horn on the left side of the head. This operation leaves the full face of the animal bare and does not tighten on the throat.
When a dehorned or polled animal is to be slaughtered it will of course be necessary to put the noose around the neck. Attach an ordinary pulley to a post or tree close to the ground, to the barn floor or sill, pass the rope through it, and draw the animal’s head down as close to the pulley as possible.
Administer a heavy blow in the center of the forehead at a point where lines from the base of the horns to the eyes would cross. Shooting has the same effect as stunning and may be resorted to. Frequently where an animal can not be brought to the pulley it is necessary to shoot. In shooting use only a rifle of good caliber.
Bleed the animal immediately by sticking just in front of the breast bone. Stand in front of the animal with back toward the body after the manner of a horseshoer. Reaching down between the front feet, lay open the skin from breastbone toward the chin for a distance of 10 to 12 inches, using the ordinary skinning knife.
Insert the knife 176 with the back against the breastbone and the tip pointing to the spinal column at the top of the shoulders, cutting just under the windpipe and about 5 to 6 inches in depth at the junction of the jugular vein near the collar bone; at this point, if the vein is severed the blood will run out rapidly.
If stuck too deep, the pleura will be punctured and blood will flow in the chest cavity, causing a bloody carcass. It requires practice to become an expert in the sticking of beef. Not so much skill is required to simply cut the animal’s throat back of the jaws but the time required for bleeding is very much longer and the bleeding less thorough.
SKINNING AND CUTTING
Begin skinning at once while the carcass is lying on its side by splitting the skin through the face from the head to the nose. Skin the face back over the eyes on both sides and down over the cheeks, cutting around the base of the horns so as to leave the ears on the hide.
Split the skin down the throat to meet the cut made in bleeding. Start the skin in slightly on the sides of the neck and down to the jaws. Now remove the head by cutting just the back of the jaws toward the depressing back of the head. The atlas joint will be found at this point and maybe easily unjointed with the knife.
At this point, the carcass should be rolled on its back and held in position by a small, strong stick, say 18 inches long, with a sharp spike in both ends. Insert one end in the brisket and the other in the floor or ground.
This will hold the carcass in position. Then split the skin over the back of the four legs from between the dew-claws to a point three or four inches above the knees. Skin around the shin and knee, unjointing the knee at the lowest joint, and skin clear down to the hoof.
The brisket and forearms should not be skinned until after the carcass is hung up. Now cut across the cord over the hind shin, splitting the skin from the dew-claws to the hock up over the rear part of the thigh to a point from four to six inches back of the cod or udder.
Skin the hock and shin, removing the leg. In splitting the skin over the thigh turn the knife down flat with the edge upward to avoid the cutting of flesh. While the hind leg is stretched ahead it is skinned down over the rear of the lower thigh but do not skin the outside of the thigh until the hind-quarters are raised. After the legs are skinned split the skin of the carcass over the midline from the breast to the rectum.
Now begin at the flanks and skin along the midline until the side is nicely started. With a sharp knife held flat against the surface have the hide stretched tightly and remove the skin down over the sides with steady down-strokes of the knife. But it is necessary that the hide should be stretched tightly and without wrinkles.
Care should be taken to leave a covering of muscles over the abdomen of the carcass as it keeps it better. In siding the beef, it is usual to go down nearly to the backbone, leaving the skin attached at thighs and shoulders; skin over the buttock, and as far down on the rump as possible, always avoiding cutting the flesh or tearing the membrane over it.
A coarse cloth and a pail of hot water should be at hand while skinning and blood spots are wiped quickly from the surface, but the cloth should be nearly dry, as the less water used the better. Open the carcass at the belly and pull the small intestines out at one side.
Use a saw or sharp ax in opening the brisket and pelvis. After raising the windpipe and belly and cutting loose the pleura and diaphragm along the lower part of the cavity, the carcass will be ready to raise.
When the carcass is raised to a convenient height, skin the hide over the thigh, rump, and hips. While in this position, it is well to loosen the rectum and small intestines and allow them to drop down over the paunch. The fat lining, the pelvis, and the kidney fat should not be disturbed nor mutilated.
The intestines may be separated from the liver to which they are attached by the use of a knife. The paunch is attached to the back at the left side and maybe torn loose. Let it roll on the ground and cut off or draw off the gullet. Now raise the carcass a little higher and take out the liver, having first removed the gall bladder.
Now remove the diaphragm, lungs, the heart, and finish skinning over the shoulders, forearms, and neck. Sponge all the dirt and blood off with a cloth, split the carcass into halves, using a saw, cleaver, or sharp ax, wash out the inside of the chest cavity and wipe it dry.
Trim off all bloody veins and scraggy pieces of the neck and leave the beef to cool before quartering.
KILLING AND DRESSING MUTTON
If the sheep is an old one, it should be stunned. If a young one, dislocating the neck after cutting the throat serves the same purpose. This is accomplished by placing one hand on top of the head, the other under the chin, and twisting sharply upward.
Lay the sheep on its side on a platform, with its head hanging over the end. Grasp the chin in the left hand and stick the knife through the neck back of the jaw, turning the cutting edge of the knife toward the spinal column and cut the flesh to the bone. By so doing it is impossible to cut the windpipe.
Split the skin over the back of the front leg from the dewclaws a little above the knee. Open the skin over the windpipe from breast to chin, starting in slightly on the sides of the neck. Split the skin over the back of the hind leg through the middle line and skin the buttock.
Raise the skin over the udder or cod and flanks. Skin around the hocks and down to the hoofs, cutting off the feet at the toe joints. Run the knife between the cord and bone on the back of the chin and tie the legs together just above the pastern joint. Do not skin the legs above the hock until the carcass is hung up.
Hang the sheep up by the hind legs, split the skin over the middle line; start at the brisket, and “fist off” the skin. This is done by grasping the edge of the pelt firmly in one hand, pulling it uptight, and working the other with the fist closed between the pelt and the body, over the fore-quarters downward and upward and backward over the hind-quarters and legs.
It is unwise to work down on the skin over the hind legs, as it would rupture the membrane. The wool should always be held away from the flesh as a matter of cleanliness, and the skin on the legs should be pulled away from the carcass rather than toward it.
When the pelt has been loosened over the sides and back, it should be stripped down over the neck and cut off close to the ears. Remove the head without skinning by cutting through the atlas joint.
Remove the entrails by cutting around the rectum and allowing it to drop down inside, but do not split the pelvis. Open down the belly line from cod or udder to breast bone; take out the paunch and intestines, leaving the liver attached to the diaphragm. It is not best to split the breast.
Reach up in the pelvis and pull out the bladder. Wipe all blood and dirt from the carcass with a coarse cloth wrung dry from hot water. Double up the front legs and slip the little cord found by cutting into the fleshy part of the forearms into the ankle joints.
KILLING AND DRESSING HOGS
A good sticking knife, hog hook, scrapers, a barrel or a trough for scalding, and a convenient place for working are the important necessities. Set the barrel at the proper slant with the open end against a table or platform of the proper height, with the bottom securely fastened; a strong tackle built for the purpose is desirable, but not necessary.
Hogs should not be excited or heated, and in catching and throwing them bruising must be avoided. However, it is not necessary to stun hogs before sticking them. At slaughterhouses, they are usually hung up by one hind leg. If there are no hoisting appliances, lay the hog on its back and hold it there until stuck.
Two men can handle a hog if they will but work with intelligence. By reaching under the animal, one at the foreleg and the other at the hind leg, they can turn a heavy hog on its back easily. One man, standing astride the body, with his feet close against the side and holding its front feet, can control it while the other does the sticking.
The knife should be eight inches long, straight-bladed and narrow, and stuck into the hog’s throat just in front of the breast bone, the point directed toward the root of the tail and held in line with the backbone. This is necessary to prevent cutting between the ribs and the shoulders, which would cause the blood to settle there with waste in trimming of the shoulder.
When the knife has been stuck in six or eight inches, according to the size of the hog, turn the knife quickly to one side and withdraw it. The arteries that are to be cut run close together just inside of the breast bone and both are cut when the knife is turned, providing the edges are sharp at the point.
The water for scalding when heated in the house should be boiling when removed from the stove. If put into a cold barrel it will be about the right temperature when the hog is ready for scalding. During the scalding process, the water should be about 185 to 195 degrees, if the scalding tub holds only enough water to scald one hog.
Water at 150 degrees will scald a hog, but, of course, more time is required. In large packing houses where a large tub is used and steam is continually blowing into the water, the water is kept at 150 degrees. Too hot water is likely to cause more trouble than too cold, and for this reason, it is always best to have a thermometer at hand.
Of course, the temperature may be reduced by putting in a little cold water. A hog should not be scalded before it is dead or the blood in the small blood vessels near the surface of the skin will cook and give a reddish tinge to the carcass.
To make the hair easy to remove and to cleanse the skin of the hog and free it from all the greasy filth which forms scurf on the skin of all hogs, our Hog-Scald should always be used.
Hogs scalded with the aid of Hog-Scald do not require so much heat to loosen the hair, it requires much less labor to clean them, and the dressed hogs will look much nicer and the rinds will cure and smoke nicer than when it is not used. No Farmer or Butcher will dress his hogs without Hog-Scald after giving it a trial. For description and price list on Hog-Scald.
While being scalded the carcass should be kept moving constantly to avoid cooking the skin. While scalding, the hog should occasionally be drawn out of the water for air, when the hair may be tried. When both hair and scurf slip easily from the skin, scalding is completed. Remove the carcass from the water and begin scraping.
The head and feet should be cleaned first, as they do not clean easily when cold. Use a “candlestick” scraper on the head. Use the hands and a knife if you haven’t this tool.
The feet and legs are easily cleaned by grasping them firmly with the hands and twisting them around and back; pull the little bristles of the body by hand and remove the scurf and fine hair with the scraper, long corn knife, or another tool. Wash the entire carcass with hot water and shave it with a sharp knife. Insert a stick under the gambrel cords and hang up the hog.
Wash down with hot water, shave patches and rinse with cold water. Occasionally the hog is too large to scald in a barrel. Cover it thickly with blankets or sacks containing a little bran, pour hot water over it and the hair will be readily loosened.
Split the hog between the hind legs, separating the bones with a knife. Run the knife down over the belly line, guiding it with the right hand and shielding the point with the lingers of the left hand and thus avoid the danger of cutting the intestines.
Split the breast bone with a knife or an ax and cut down through the sticking place to the chin. Cut around the rectum and pull down until the kidneys are reached, using a knife whenever necessary to sever the cords attached to the back.
Do not disturb the kidneys or the fat covering them, excepting in warm weather, when the leaf may be removed to allow quicker and more thorough cooling. Remove the paunch and the intestines. The gall bladder lies in plain sight on the liver, and it lies attached to the diaphragm and hypatic vein. It should be stripped off after starting the upper end with a knife.
Avoid spilling the contents on the meat. Insert the fingers under the liver and strip it out. Cut across the artery, running down the backbone, and cut around the diaphragm, removing them with the pluck, that is, heart, lungs, liver, and gullet. Open the jaw and insert a small block to allow free drainage.
Wash out all blood with cold water, and dry with a coarse cloth. In hot weather, the backbone should be split to facilitate cooling. The fat should be removed from the intestines before they get cold. It is strong in flavor and should not be mixed with the leaf lard in rendering.
Those who undertake to clean casings have great trouble in getting them white and many resort to lime and other methods for both bleaching them and freeing them of fat. Notwithstanding all such efforts, the casings remain dark and unattractive. The reason for much of this difficulty lies in the fact that the casings are not properly washed and cleaned in the first operation.
Casings should be washed thoroughly in three different changes of water. The fat should then be scraped off from the outside. Water must also be run through the casings and they should be turned inside out so that they may become thoroughly washed and cleaned.
After casings have been perfectly washed and scraped in this manner, they should be dry-salted by packing them in a liberal quantity of salt. Casings thus cured will remain sweet and white.
The proper handling of the hides of slaughtered animals, so as to obtain the best possible prices for them and avoid excessive shrinkage before they are marketed, is a very important matter and should have the Butcher’s careful attention.
In the first place, it should be borne in mind that it is an easy matter to badly damage the hide of an animal before killing by prodding it with a pole. This of course should always be avoided.
The killing floor should be kept as clean as possible. If there is blood on the floor and this gets on the hair and remains there, when the hides are stacked up this 188 blood comes in contact with the fleshy side of the hide next to it and will make a spot that gives the hide a very bad appearance. By keeping the hides entirely free from blood, they make a better appearance and bring a better price.
The greatest care should be given to the removal of the hide, so they are not scored, as this greatly reduces the value of the hides to the tanner.
A good, careful skinner is worth several dollars a week more to the Butcher who kills many animals than a skinner who is careless in his work. (The hide should be so nicely removed from the animal that when it comes to the tanner it should look like it had been planned from the animal, it should be so free from cuts or scores.)
PROPER STORAGE OF HIDES
This is a point of very great importance. If many hides are kept on hand for any length of time before shipment, the difference in shrinkage between hides that are properly kept and those which are not so stored is very great. The careful storing and handling of hides will always repay the time and trouble necessary, not only in the weight of the hides but in the condition in which they are marketed.
Hides should be kept in as cool a room as possible and all windows and doors should be kept closed, so as to have no circulation of air.
SALT TO USE IN SALTING HIDES
The best salt to use for this purpose is Crushed Rock Salt. Large lumps of salt are objectionable, on account of leaving indentations in the hides where they are pressed together, which injures their appearance in the eyes of the buyer.
One part of Fine Salt to three parts of Crushed Rock Salt makes a fine mixture for salting hides, as the fine salt quickly dissolves and makes moisture on the hide, which the hide absorbs.
When re-using old salt for salting hides, always add about one-third of new salt to it, as this gives much better results. About one-third of the salt used is consumed in salting hides, so by adding one-third additional fresh salt each time, the supply of salt is kept the same.
Always keep the salt as clean as possible. If there is much dirt or manure in it these will discolor the hides and they will not make as good a showing to the buyer.
QUANTITY OF SALT TO USE ON HIDES
In large Packing Houses about 35 lbs. of salt is used for each hide. The Packers find that by using this quantity they get better results than if a smaller quantity is used.
Very few Butchers in the country use as much salt as this on their hides, but they would find it greatly to their advantage to use about 100 lbs. of salt to every three hides, and if the proper quantity of salt is used, as described in the foregoing, it can be used over and over again with a loss of about one-third for each time used.
It is much better for the Butcher to invest more money in salt and give the hides a proper amount, as he will thus save on the excessive shrinkage of the hides, which would amount to more than the cost of the salt.
HOW TO STACK HIDES WHEN SALTING
One of the most important features in salting hides is the way they are stacked when salted. The hides must be so piled that they are perfectly level and the salt must be distributed over every part of the hide. The flesh side should be up, and the salt should be rubbed over them evenly.
The hides can be piled about two feet high. The legs of the hide should be kept straight and flat, so the salt gets into all crevices. The edges of the stack of hides should be kept a trifle higher all around than the center of the stack, so the natural moisture that comes out of the hide and the dry salt will remain on them.
If the hides are salted on a slanting floor, or if the hides are piled up carelessly so the hides lie slanting, the brine composed of moisture of the green hide and the salt will runoff, and then the percentage of loss from shrinkage will be large.
HOW LONG TO CURE HIDES.
Hides should lie in the pack and salt for 25 to 30 days, so as to be fully cured and ready for shipment.
TRIMMING OF GREEN HIDES
Before the hides are salted the switches should be cut off of the tail and all loose ends of the hide should be cut off. The butt of the ears should also be split; if the hides go into the pack without attention to this point, it makes the pack very uneven on account of the thickness of the ear, and the salt does not have a chance to properly penetrate the ears, and they are liable to spoil.
Loose pieces of meat that are carelessly left on the hides and all excessive fat should be trimmed off. Hides must not be salted until five hours or longer after the animal is killed, and they must not be piled closely, as this would prevent the animal heat from escaping. If hides are salted with the animal heat in them, very often the hair will slip, which will make No. 2 hides.
Switches should be spread out on the floor so they will thoroughly cool off. After they are thoroughly cool, they can be piled into a heap and salt applied so they are entirely covered. The more salt put over them the better, as they spoil very easily.
Butchers can easily tan the skins of Sheep, Goats, Cattle, and Calves with Tanaline, and they can often pick up fine skins of wild animals, which can also be easily tanned. By tanning the fancy skins that the Butcher frequently can get, he can sell them for 191 three or four times as much as he would realize when sold to the Hide Buyer.
DIRECTIONS FOR TANNING SKINS
First:—After weighing the skins, soak them in plain cold water; fresh or salted skins for 24 hours, and air-dried skins for at least 48 hours. Then scrape off all the fat with a dull instrument, such as a putty knife or sharp piece of hardwood. Then wash thoroughly, with cold water, on both sides of the skin.
Second:—Use, for every 30 pounds of skins, a 2-pound package of Tanaline and 4 pounds of salt. Dissolve 2 pounds of Tanaline and 4 pounds of salt in 5 to 6 gallons of cold water, and when thoroughly dissolved, place the skins into it. Have sufficient water so that all the skins are entirely covered.
Tan small, thin skins in this solution for 24 hours. Goat, sheep, calf, and dog skins should be allowed to tan from two to three days, according to their thickness. Cattle or horse skins, or skins of a similar nature, require one week in this solution to properly tan them.
During the tanning process remove the skins and replace them in the same solution twice a day, so that the solution gets over all parts of the skins uniformly. After tanning, drain off all the solution that can easily be drained off, and spread the skins out with the flesh side up, away from the sun.
Third:—Make a heavy flour paste; thin enough to spread easily. Now cover the entire flesh side of the skin with a thin layer (about a one-eighth inch) of this paste. Let the skins and flour paste dry for two to four days, according to the weather. The paste will absorb the moisture out of the skins and soften them.
Fourth:—When the skins become dry, work them so that the paste is shaken off. If the skins have been allowed to dry too long, they will be too hard to work, and they should be softened by sprinkling some dampened sawdust over the skins and leaving it on them overnight. The skins should next be softened and worked by pulling them over the edge of a table or box, until soft and pliable.
If the horns are rough, first take a file and file through the rough horn, down to the solid horn, and file the horn into proper shape, smoothing the tip and shaping the large end to suit the fancy.
After they have been filed, take sandpaper and rub the horn with the sandpaper until it is nice and smooth, then finish the rubbing with very fine sandpaper, so as to take out all the scratches. After it has been sandpapered, take a piece of glass and scrape it until very smooth.
Polish by rubbing with powdered rottenstone and machine oil. The polishing must be done with the palm of the hand, and the horn should be rubbed until beautifully polished.