general hints for curing meats

Meat Curing Plus Sausage Making Information Part 2

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GENERAL HINTS FOR CURING MEATS

Curers of meat, who are well acquainted with us know that we have been in a position to acquire more than the average knowledge in the meat curing and handling of meats.

As is well known, we have been consulting chemists and packing house experts for many years; therefore, the general information which we offer for curing meats is suggested by the results of many years of practical experience.

 

CHILLING MEATS

Hams, Shoulders, Bellies, and other cuts must be thoroughly chilled before they are put into pickle. From one to two days before being packed, depending upon the temperature, they should be hung up or laid on a rack in the cooler, in order to draw out all the animal heat that is in them and to make them firm and ready for packing.

Packers, using ice machinery for cooling, can bring the temperature low enough during the warm weather to properly chill the meat; however, it must not be frozen.

If the cooler in which meats are chilled is not cold enough to make the Hams, Shoulders, Bellies, etc., firm and solid in 48 hours, it is advisable to lay the meat on the floor overnight and place crushed ice over it; this will harden the meat.

Those using a common ice house can employ the crushed ice method, which is to spread the meat on the floor and throw cracked ice over the meat, allowing it to remain overnight.

It should always be remembered that if meat is put into brine soft and spongy, it will become pickle-soaked and in such condition will never cure properly. It will come out of the brine soft and spongy, and will often sour when in the smokehouse.

A great deal of meat spoils in curing only for the reason that the animal heat has not been removed before the meat is packed and placed in brine. When the animal heat is all out of the meat, the meat will be firm and solid all the way through.

In order to get the best results, the inside temperature of Hams and Shoulders when packed, should not be over 36 to 38 degrees Fahrenheit. The meat should be tested with a thermometer made for this purpose before it is packed. Every curer of meat should have one. 

 

OVERHAULING

When curing Hams, Shoulders, and all kinds of sweet-pickled meats in open vats, overhauling is a very important feature; it must be done at least four times during the curing period. When curing in closed-up tierces, the tierces must be rolled at least four times during the curing period.

Bellies must be overhauled at least three times while curing in open vats, and if cured in closed-up tierces, they must be rolled at least three times during the curing period. This overhauling is very necessary because it mixes the brine and changes the position of the meat in such a way that the brine gets to all parts of it. 

 

HOW TO BOIL HAMS

Heat the water to 155 degrees Fahrenheit. Then place the hams in the hot water and keep them in it for eight to nine hours, according to the size of the Hams. Try to keep the water as near to 155 degrees as possible. By cooking Hams at a temperature of 155 degrees, very little of the fat will cook out of them and float on top of the water, and the Hams will shrink very little.

When Hams or large pieces of meat are boiled for slicing cold, allow them to remain in the water until it is nearly cold, for by so doing the meat re-absorbs much of the nutriment which has been drawn out during the cooking process.

Then put them in a cooler overnight, so that they will become thoroughly chilled before slicing. Hams should never be cooked in boiling water, which is 212 degrees Fahrenheit, as this is so hot that most of the fat will melt and run out of them.

 

USING BRINE TWICE

The Pickle, in which Hams have been cured, but which is still sweet and not stringy or ropy, is the best brine in which to cure light bellies. Nothing needs to be added to it. It should be used just as it comes from the Hams.

While brine in which Hams have been cured can be used once more for curing Breakfast Bacon, it should be remembered that it must not be used a second time for curing Hams or Shoulders.

ICE WATER

Never use the dripping water of melted ice from a cooler for making Pickle, as it contains many impurities, and therefore should never be used. 

 

PUMPING MEATS

We highly recommend pumping Hams, Shoulders, and other kinds of Cured Meats. It is a safeguard in Hams and Shoulders against shank and body souring, should they, through some carelessness, be insufficiently chilled all the way to the bone, and is a protection against the sour joint, and ensures a uniform cure.

It is also of great advantage to pump Breakfast Bacon, Corned Beef, Dried Beef, Dry Salt Meats, etc. Packers and curers, who do not use a pump and the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, are suffering losses from sour meats, which during a year’s business would mean a large profit to them.

There is a mistaken idea among many butchers and packers that pumping Hams and Shoulders is injurious to the meat. The facts do not warrant such a belief, as the best cured and the best-flavored meats are those that have been pumped. When Hams and Shoulders are not pumped, it requires weeks for the pickle to penetrate through to the bone, which is the vital spot of a Ham or Shoulder.

If the joints, tissues, and meat around the bone are not wholly and thoroughly cured, the entire Ham or Shoulder is inferior and no good; because it furnishes a favorable seat for the development of the germs of putrefaction, which render the meat unfit for human food.

In order to always have a mild cure, sweet flavor at the joints, and uniform color, they should be pumped.

Pumping with the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process is a safe-guard against shank and body souring; it gives the inside of a Ham or Shoulder a delicious flavor, a good color, and ensures a uniform cure; it cures the joints and the meat around the bone thoroughly, and greatly reduces the period of curing.

The secret and principal feature in pumping Hams and Shoulders is to have the right kind of pumping brine. When common brine or ordinary sweet-pickle is used for pumping,

the Hams or Shoulders usually become pickle-soaked, and if the refrigerator under such conditions is not the very best, or if the Hams or Shoulders are not thoroughly chilled, the smallest degree of animal heat which may be remaining in them will start fermentation, causing the meat to sour next to the joints.

It is, therefore, plain to be seen that pumping, under such conditions, instead of doing good, will, in reality, result in injury, and this is the reason why so many who have tried pumping meats have failed. On the other hand, when the pumping brine is made as shown herein, all of these objections are overcome, and the meat will not be pickle-soaked, nor will it become soft and flabby.

The brine will be absorbed by the meat around the bone and joints so thoroughly as to leave no trace of it after the Ham is cured; it also gives the inside meat a fine red color, and a delicious flavor.

Hams that have been pumped with Freeze-Em-Pickle and cured by the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, will not dry up and become hard when fried or cooked; when sliced cold they will not crumble but will slice nicely and have a delicate and pleasing flavor.

 

DIRECTIONS FOR PUMPING

One gallon of pumping brine is sufficient for pumping one tierce, or 285 lbs. of meat. Make the pumping brine as follows:

½ lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
1 lb of Pure Granulated Sugar.
2 lbs. of Salt.
1 gal. of Water.

The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or brown sugar must not be used. When adulterated sugar is used, the brine becomes thick and would spoil the meat in two weeks.

Stir the above thoroughly before using. As this will make a thick brine that is more than saturated, it will precipitate when left standing, therefore, when mixed in large quantities, it should be stirred occasionally. Meats should never be pumped with anything but a solution that is thoroughly saturated.

Pump the Hams or Shoulders just before they are packed, and if it is desired to rush the cure, pump them every time that the meat is overhauled. The pumping solution must be cold when pumped into the meat.

Ordinarily, three insertions of the needle in the Hams are sufficient; once at the shank to the hock joint, once to the thigh and along the bone, and once from the butt end to the joint under the hip bone and into the fleshy part. Solid lines show the needle up to point of insertion and the dotted line shows the direction taken by the needle after insertion.

In a very heavy Ham as many as six insertions should be made, and the same with very heavy Shoulders. Three insertions of the needle into a medium-size Shoulder are sufficient; including one to the shoulder joint, and one under the blade from the end, or diagonally from the back of the shoulder toward the end.

More insertions may be made without injury to the meat, but the above is all that is required for good results. One cubic inch of solution is enough for each insertion, and after withdrawing the needle, the hole must be squeezed shut with the thumb to prevent the solution from oozing out.

Stir the solution well before starting to pump. The Pumper must be careful not to pump air into the meat. Never allow the Pickle to go below the end of the sucker of the pump. 

 

USE ONLY PURE SUGAR

It will be noted that, in all of our directions for the sweet pickling of meat, we lay great stress upon the importance of using only pure sugar, free from adulterations. The very best and purest of granulated sugar should always be used if the best results are expected.

Sugar, as is well known is a great nutrient and, as a food, possesses practically the same value as starch; it is, however, much more readily digested. Therefore the use of pure sugar assists in making meat food products more digestible. In preparing a sweet brine, the one great object sought to be attained is that the brine shall have the highest possible penetrative quality.

Any adulterant in the sugar tends to prevent the penetration of the sweet pickled brine and lessens its efficiency in proportion as adulterants are contained in the sugar. It is only by the use of pure granulated sugar that a well-keeping brine can be produced.

Many adulterants, even though they are natural adulterants, resulting from lack of proper refining of the sugar, tend to create fermentation in the brine producing a slimy and ropy condition. As is well known to those best experienced in the sweet pickling of meat, ropy and slimy brine is almost always sure to cause the meat to sour.

Impurities in sugar used for producing sweet pickle will prevent the proper coagulation of the albumen in the meat juices. Coagulation does and should take place in all well-cured meat. The impurities and adulterants, in other words, positively counteract the effect of the curing agents in the brine. Therefore use only the best pure granulated sugar in making all sweet pickle.

The general conditions for obtaining pure granulated sugar at the present day are very much improved over those of a number of years ago, prior to the passage of the Food and Drugs Act of 1906. For instance, you can form a good idea of the purity of your sugar by dissolving a quantity in water to make a fairly thick syrup, but not using more than the water will take up.

Cork this tightly and place it in a dark room overnight. We have seen tests made in this way, which in twenty-four hours would show a deposit of blue coloring at the bottom of the bottle, and also a considerable quantity of insoluble salts.

This comes from what is known as “bluing” the sugar, but where you purchase one of the well-known manufacturer’s products marked, “pure granulated sugar”, these difficulties are seldom met with at the present time.

There was a time also when sugar was frequently adulterated with crystallized glucose or as is commonly known “grape sugar.” This was a very serious adulterant from the viewpoint of the sweet pickle curing of meat, as glucose tends to ferment in brine very quickly and consequently the brine would become ropy and slimy within a very short time.

This resulted in sour and soggy hams, bacon, etc., so that the purchase of cheap sugar containing impurities was never a saving, but proved very costly to the manufacturer who was persuaded to purchase low-grade sugar.

It has been a common practice with some butchers in preparing sweet pickle to use molasses or syrup. This method we strongly urge our friends not to adopt. The saving will be many times lost by meat which will have to be thrown away because of a ropy, fermented, and sour pickle.

We cannot urge upon our friends too strongly that they use only pure granulated sugar. Not only from the standpoint of keeping sweet pickle brine in good, clean condition but from the viewpoint of flavor and thorough cure, the use of pure granulated sugar is absolutely necessary for producing the proper kind of finished meat food products.

Sugar is considered a natural preservative, but it must be borne in mind that sugar is used in the sweet pickle method of curing meat, not only as a preservative but also as a flavor.

Pure sugar has the property of combining with the other curing agents and by its penetrative property carries the other curing agents into the cells of the 80 meat tissue more thoroughly. This results in the uniform action of the curing agent, producing even flavored meat as a result of the cure.

Another peculiar property of pure sugar is that by its combination with the salt used in the brine it has a great tendency to prevent fermentation, thus keeping a clean, clear, sweet, penetrative brine, which will do the largest amount of work with the smallest amount of material, in producing evenly cured meat.

To sum up, we will state that pure granulated sugar should take the place of molasses, syrup, or any other form of sweetener because it imparts a better flavor and assists in making the brine more penetrative, thus producing the best results.

 

HANDLING CALVES’ STOMACHS OR RENNETS

The calf’s stomach is divided into four compartments. The first one is known as the paunch; the second as the honeycomb stomach; the third is called the many-plies stomach and the fourth is known as the rennet bag.

The proper way to handle the rennet bag is to remove it from the balance of the stomach, turn it inside out, and clean it with fresh water so as to remove the adhering contents. Great care must be taken not to scrape off or in any way remove the mucous membrane (by this is meant the many folds of thin skin) as this is the part of the stomach that has a market value.

Of course, the stomach must be gently and carefully washed to remove the undigested portions of food that may be contained therein, as otherwise it would very quickly decompose and become putrid. It would then be of no value whatever for any purpose.

After cleansing them, dust the rennet bags all over with finely ground salt, and blow them up after having turned them inside out. Then hang them in a dry place in a current of air so that they will dry as quickly as possible. 

 

ROPY OR STRINGY BRINE

Occasionally brine that has been made with sugar will become ropy and thick like jelly, but yet will be somewhat stringy. This is called “Ropy Brine,” and can always be traced to either the use of unsuitable sugar or improper temperature of the curing room.

Yellow or brown sugar and glucose sugar will never do for curing meat. It must be Pure Sugar, and the Refined, Granulated Sugar is the best because the impurities have been taken out.

However, even if Pure Granulated Sugar is used and the temperature of the Curing Room is too high, the brine is liable to turn “Ropy” anyway. It is, therefore, absolutely necessary for anyone who intends to cure meat in sweet brine not only to use the proper kind of sugar but also to cure at the proper temperature. Otherwise, the results will not be satisfactory, no matter what kind of a curing agent is used.

In buying sugar for curing purposes, it is advisable to order it from the wholesale grocers or from the manufacturer, and have it guaranteed to be Pure Granulated Sugar put up Especially for Preserving Purposes. This grade of sugar is on the market and is used for preserving fruits, and is the best kind of sugar to use for curing meats.

If brine has become ropy in a curing package and it is desired to use that package again, it is absolutely necessary to thoroughly scald out such package, and it is well to use Ozo Washing Powder for that purpose so as to prevent the possibility of fermentation. Otherwise, the unclean package will cause the fresh brine to turn “Ropy” even though it is made with the right kind of sugar and kept in the proper temperature. 

 

BOILING THE BRINE

Boiling the brine improves it some, but not enough to pay for the extra trouble it makes. We recommend boiling the water, if one has the time, as it purifies it. When there is reason to believe that the water is impure, or when it is known to be tainted with vegetable matter, the brine should always be boiled, and the impurities will then float on the surface and can be skimmed off.

 

CLEANSING CURING PACKAGES

All curing packages should be taken out of the cooler after the meat has been cured in them, and scalded and washed thoroughly clean with hot water and Ozo. Soda or Soda-ash may also be used, but we strongly recommend Ozo, which is a thoroughly reliable Washing Powder.

When packages have been thoroughly cleaned, they should be put out in the sun and allowed to remain there for a day or two. The sun will thoroughly dry them and the fresh air will sweeten them. 

 

SOME CAUSES FOR SOUR HAMS

Sour Hams are sometimes caused by hanging warm meat in the same room in which the meat is cured. This should never be done. The warm carcasses raise the temperature of the curing room, thus causing the brine to get too warm. Under such conditions, the meat is liable to sour in the brine. Furthermore, the brine is liable to absorb the odors from the warm carcasses, which of course is very objectionable.

Many suppose that Hams sour from getting too much smoke, but such is never the cause, as Hams will not sour from over-smoke. Smoke aids to preserve Hams and cannot cause them to sour.

When Hams sour in the Smoke House the cause must be traced to the fact that they are not properly and fully cured before going into the Smoke House, and the portion that has not been thoroughly cured, which is generally close to the bone, has not been reached by the brine.

In many cases, souring comes from imperfect chilling of meat before putting it into the brine; then again, the meat may not have been overhauled at the proper time and with the frequency which good curing requires.

In order to prevent the souring of Hams, the various stages of curing must be carried out with the utmost care. In the first place, hogs should not be killed when overheated or excited, and after they have been scalded and scraped, they must be dressed as quickly as possible, washed out thoroughly with clean water, and then split and allowed to hang in a well-ventilated room until partly cooled off.

They should then be run into a cooler or chill room as quickly as possible and the temperature should be reduced to 32 to 34 degrees Fahrenheit. They should be allowed to thus chill for 48 hours. When hogs are properly chilled after curing, the temperature of the inside of the Ham or Shoulder will not be more than several degrees higher than the cooler.

After being thoroughly chilled, the Hams must undergo the various processes which will be found in other pages of this book which give directions for the curing of Hams and Shoulders. When these directions are closely followed, there will never be trouble from sour Hams. 

 

HAMS AND SUPERIOR HAMS

There seems to exist some doubt in the minds of butchers as to whether one Ham can be cured to better advantage than another, basing their opinion upon the fact that all packers have two grades of Hams, one of which is called of superior quality. Doubt has been expressed as to whether one piece of meat taken from the hog will make any better pork than that taken from another.

This doubt should not obtain and could hardly exist in the minds of anyone who has carefully investigated the modern methods of packing. If such a person were to stand by the side of a Ham trimmer in a packing house and examine each Ham as it comes from the trimmer, he would be at once convinced as to the error of his opinion. There would be noticed a vast difference in the quality of Hams, even in their fresh state.

Many Hams are of very coarse grain, especially those that come from boars, stags, and old sows, while many other Hams are large and too fat. Those that come from poor, scrawny hogs are too small and thin, and this differentiation exists regardless of the grade or the experience in buying different lots of hogs.

Perhaps there is no animal that varies so much in quality and condition of meat as the hog, and he fully represents or reflects the quality of the food from which he is made or the results of wise or unwise feeding. Furthermore, Hams will vary in quality even after they have been graded; some medium size Hams, which is the size usually picked for the finest cure, are of much better quality than others.

This will be readily admitted when it is remembered that a Ham may be of proper weight, but it can also be too fat for its weight, it can be too lean, it can have a coarse thick skin, the meat can be coarse in grain or it may be properly graded as to size, but come from an old, worn-out sow. Under such circumstances, it is not only necessary to cull the Hams but to re-cull them, until the different grades are divided as to quality. 

A fourteen to sixteen pound Ham from a young barrow with a fine, thin, white skin which is not too fat or not too lean, and possessing a nice, fine-grained meat is fully up to grade and is taken for the superior quality of Hams.

Therefore, a Ham of this description is superior in quality even before it goes into the brine for curing, and it is very easy to understand that when such a quality of Ham is carefully cured, for just the proper length of time, it will be far better than the ordinary run of Hams. Furthermore, the quality of the Hams may have deteriorated in many ways.

For instance, the fourteen to sixteen pound Ham is fully cured in from sixty to seventy days, but if a packer has put up a large quantity of better grade Hams which gives him a surplus, he will hold them in the brine from ten to twenty days longer after they have been fully cured, and if they are thus kept in the brine for this additional period, they may become too salty and their fine flavor is lost.

Under such circumstances, the Hams must be taken out of the brine and smoked or must be stored in a low temperature for ten or twenty days longer, but the moment they are kept beyond the full curing time they are not as good as when taken out of the cure at the moment they are fully cured.

Furthermore, if a large quantity of the superior quality of Hams has been smoked and they are not disposed of rapidly enough, they begin to lose in appearance, and must again be culled and sold with the cheaper grade of Hams. If they are kept in brine longer than is necessary, they must also go into the cheaper quality.

It is, therefore, plain to be seen that what is known as superior quality is the best Ham that the packer can turn out. As stated, the Hams are superior before they are cured. They are properly kept all through the process of curing, and the moment they are fully cured they are taken out, smoked, and sold. It is only by handling Hams in this manner that it is possible to maintain a grade of superior quality.

All Hams cannot be handled in this way, owing to the fluctuation of supply and demand, but the packer aims to keep them fully up to superior grade by a frequent and discriminating culling. This should convince anyone in doubt upon this question that they are erroneous in supposing that all hams are alike and that all hog meat is high-grade pork, when, in fact, it has various grades of quality. 

 

HOW TO SMOKE PICKLE-SOAKED MEAT

It sometimes happens that butchers leave their Hams in the brine too long and they become pickle-soaked. Once in this pickle-soaked condition, it is well known that it is a very difficult matter to smoke the Hams, because, even though they are sweet when they go into the Smoke House, they will come out sour.

Hams should not be left in brine over ninety days, and at the very outside not more than one hundred days unless they are put into a freezer and kept at a temperature of 28 degrees, at which they can be kept as long as desired. But it is frequently the case that they are left in pickle five or six months in an ordinary cooler.

Hams thus over-pickled cannot fail to cause trouble in the Smoke House, and we would advise that all Hams that have been left in the brine for such a long time should be washed off in warm water after first letting them soak in cold water 2 to 4 hours. They should then be hung up to dry and kept in a well-ventilated room where the temperature is not too high.

A room in which the circulation of air is good and which can be well ventilated by opening the windows and doors, and which does not rise in temperature above 60 to 70 degrees, would answer the purpose for drying out. It will do no harm to let the Hams hang two or three weeks before smoking.

They can then be put in the Smoke House and smoked gently, using as little heat as possible. For the purpose of this light smoking, it is best to use sawdust instead of wood, or mostly sawdust, and a small amount of wood, in order to reduce the heat.

The Smoke House should also be constructed in such a way that it can be sufficiently ventilated to let cool air into it and thus make sure of cool smoke. If Hams are smoked under such conditions, they should come out of the Smoke House without souring.

The souring of pickle-soaked Hams is due to the brine fermenting in the Hams when they are placed in the warm Smoke House. Hence the advisability of drying out the Hams well before placing them in the Smoke House, and of smoking them in a cool smoke.

When Meat has been in brine a very long time and has become pickle-soaked, and is afterward soaked in cold water, the greatest of care must be taken not to keep it in cold freshwater too long, otherwise, the meat will absorb more moisture. It is also a good plan to soak Meat that has been in the brine for 60, 70, or 80 days in cold water.

When Hams are fully cured, the strength of the brine may be reduced somewhat, after which the Hams may be permitted to remain in the brine about 30 days longer. Hams are fully cured in 70 days, and maybe allowed to remain in a weaker brine 30 days longer, but no longer.

After 30 days they must be taken out of this reduced brine, and, if it is so desired, they may be kept in a low temperature two or three weeks longer before smoking, but at the end of that time they must be smoked.

 

CLEANING LARD TIERCES FOR CURING PURPOSES.

As is well known, Butchers experience a great deal of trouble when they use second-hand lard tierces for curing meats, owing to the fact that the lard soaks into the pores of the wood, where it becomes tainted and rancid. No amount of washing or scalding will thoroughly cleanse such tierces or make them as good as new.

The lard is run into the tierces while it is hot and the fat naturally soaks very deeply into the wood. After these tierces are emptied and are used for curing purposes, the old lard remains in the pores and becomes rancid and contaminates the brine and also the meat.

It is a fact that many Butchers use old lard tierces for curing purposes and neglect to thoroughly clean them; and even if they have been well cleaned, it is well known that, notwithstanding every precaution taken, there is still left in the tierces a taint which affects the flavor of the meat. 

 

USE ONLY PURE SPICES

We strongly recommend our friends to use only Pure Spices for three very good and sufficient reasons. First, for flavor; second, for uniformity, which will ensure your sausage is always being the same in flavor; third, for economy, as pure spices are cheapest in the final analysis.

Then again, the Pure Food Laws should not be overlooked. In States where the use of cereal in sausage is forbidden, the one safeguard against prosecution is to use absolutely Pure Spices and avoid so-called sausage seasonings which contain cereals as an adulterant. In our laboratory, we have repeatedly found cases where as much as 50% of bread crumbs were mixed into a spice to cheapen it.

The bread crumbs mixed with the seasoning into the sausage meat would be detected by the chemists and microscopists of the various State Pure Food Departments, making the butcher who used such seasonings liable to prosecution for adding adulterants to his sausage.

If you will bear in mind that spices are of value only to the extent that they contain the flavoring principle of the particular Spice, you will readily understand that buying adulterated Spices is just throwing so much money away. For instance, in the case of White Pepper, there is an Oil of Pepper and certain resins.

Presuming that you do pay the legitimate wholesale price for the sausage seasoning which contains only the best Singapore White Pepper and do have to pay a few cents a pound more than for one which is diluted down with 50% bread crumbs, the pure and unadulterated Spice is by far the cheapest in the end. You are also assured of always obtaining a uniform flavor in the finished sausage meat.

There is probably no other material in use by the butcher that is as liable to adulteration as Spice. To the average user the adulteration is very difficult to detect, because the aroma of the Spice is there and the adulterant is so cunningly ground and mixed in with the Pure Spice that, to the naked eye, it looks like the genuine article.

But once the chemist or the microscopist secures a sample of these adulterated goods one glance through the microscope and a simple test for starch, which comes from the added cereal present, is sufficient.

These adulterations not only occur in the largest used Spice like Pepper, but many of the other higher priced Spices like Cinnamon, Nutmeg, Cloves, Mace, Allspice, Ginger, etc., are equally the subject of adulteration at the hands of unscrupulous manufacturers and jobbers whose only object is to undersell the legitimate importer and grinder of real 100% Spice. 

 

A CHEAP TEMPORARY SMOKEHOUSE

This illustration will give some idea of how a temporary smokehouse can be rigged up with very little trouble, which will answer the purpose nicely.

Very often it becomes necessary for a butcher to re-smoke some bologna that has been shipped to him from a packer, and it is sometimes necessary to re-smoke Hams and Bacon. Also, a butcher will often want to cure a small quantity of meat and would like to smoke it.

When butchers who are not equipped with a smokehouse have to do this, they may be at a loss to know what to do.

Take a clean sugar barrel and knock out the bottom; then set the barrel on top of a box about four feet long, one or two feet high, and as wide as the barrel. If a box of this shape cannot be obtained, a large dry goods box will answer. Bore auger holes through the box under the barrel, to let the smoke through.

Get a large piece of tin, galvanized iron, or sheet iron, about one foot wide and 2 feet long and bend it into the shape of a pan, or take an old roasting pan. Dig a hole in the ground at the front end of the box, so a fire can be put onto this piece of tin, sheet iron, or pan and then placed under the box with the fire on it. After the fire is placed under the box, place a board over the hole. All crevices must be banked with dirt around the box, to keep the smoke in.

The meats to be smoked should be hung on sticks with long strings on them, so as to let them down to about the middle of the barrel. Cover the barrel up with a gunny sack, so as to let a draft pass through and still retain the smoke in the barrel. This makes a first-class temporary smokehouse with very little trouble and expense.

 

HOW TO KEEP HAMS, SHOULDERS, BACON, DRIED BEEF, AND ALL KINDS OF PICKLED MEATS IN BRINE FOR A YEAR OR LONGER

All kinds of pickled meat after it is fully cured if stored in a cooler in which the temperature is kept down to 28 degrees can be kept in this cooler for a year, or even longer, and when removed will come out similar to fresh cured meat.

During the time when Hams and other meats are low in price, they can be stored in a freezer and kept there until such a time as they are in greatest demand and will sell at the highest price. This enables the packer to reap a larger profit.

At a temperature of 28 degrees, the meat will not freeze after it is cured, and the brine of course does not freeze, as saltwater will not freeze, at that temperature. When meat is taken out of such cold storage to be smoked, it should first be soaked for three to five hours in freshwater, then washed in boiling hot water and smoked the same as regular fresh cured meat.

 

WASHING CURED MEAT BEFORE SMOKING

Hams, Shoulders, Bacon, and all cured meats whether dry salted or cured in brine, should be washed in hot water and scrubbed with a brush before being put into the smokehouse. This is very important, as the meat thus scrubbed will come out of the smoke looking much better. The water should be as hot as the men can work with. The hotter the water, the better the meat will look after being smoked. 

 

BRINE ABSORBS FOREIGN ODORS

Warm carcasses of meat should never be put into a cooler where meat is being cured in open vats, as the cold pickle will absorb the impure animal heat and odors which these carcasses give off. Never allow sour pickle of any kind to remain in the curing room, as cold brine or water will absorb all foreign odors.

To demonstrate this, take a glass of cold water, set it on a table next to a glass of tainted brine, and cover both with a bucket or pan; allow them to remain overnight, and the next morning the cold water will have the same odor as the tainted brine.

This will easily prove how meat can be tainted when curing in open tierces or vats if anything sour or spoiled is in the cooler; therefore, curing rooms must be kept as clean as possible.

 

HOW LONG BRINE SHOULD BE USED

The length of time that brine should be used depends entirely upon the quantity of brine that you have in the barrel and the amount of meat that you put in each week. When the meat is packed solid it takes about 5 gallons of brine to every 100 pounds of meat.

On the other hand, if you put 25 gallons of brine in a tierce in which you place but a few pieces of corned beef from time to time as the meat accumulates your brine would be sufficient to cure 500 pounds of meat; if the barrel was nice and clean, the meat in good condition when put in the brine, and generally speaking conditions are favorable it will cure a great deal more than 500 pounds.

The brine may be used until it begins to get thick and show foam on the top; then of course it is advisable to make a new brine, at the same time washing the tierce out thoroughly. 

 

DRY SALT MEATS

Short Ribs (Regular) are made from the sides of the hog, between the Ham and Shoulder, having the loin and ribs in, and the backbone removed.

Extra Short Ribs are made from the sides of the hog, between the Ham and Shoulder, with loin taken out, but belly ribs left in.

Short Ribs (Hard) are made from the sides of the hog, between the Ham and Shoulder, having the loin, ribs, and backbone in.

Short Clears are made from the sides of the hog, between the Ham and Shoulder, having the loin in, and ribs and backbone removed.

Extra Short Clears are made from the sides of the hog, between the Ham and Shoulder with loin and all bones were taken out.

Long Clears are made from sides, Ham being cut off, but Shoulders left in, backbone and ribs removed, shoulder blade and leg bone taken out, and leg cut off close to the breast.

Extra Long Clears are made from sides, Ham being cut off, backbone, loin, and ribs removed. Shoulder blade and leg bone taken out and leg cut off close to the breast.

Short Clear Backs are made from the backs of hogs with the loin left in, but ribs and backbone removed; also known as Lean Backs and Loin Backs.

Short Fat Backs are made from the fat backs of prime hogs, being free from lean and bone, and properly squared on all edges.

Dry Salt Bellies are made from medium size hogs, cut square and well-trimmed on all edges, with ribs left in.

Dry Salt Clear Bellies are made from medium size hogs, cut square and well-trimmed on all edges, with ribs taken out. 

 

HOW TO CURE DRY SALT SIDE MEATS

First—Thoroughly chill the hogs so they are firm and solid. This will require letting them hang in the cooler after they are killed for about 48 hours. Should the sides not be perfectly solid and thoroughly chilled, when cut up, spread them on the floor of a dry cooler for 24 hours, which ought to be long enough in a fair cooler to thoroughly chill them.

Second:—Make a tub of brine, using 15 lbs. of salt and 1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle to every 5 gallons of brine.

Third:—Take a pickle pump, and pump some of the above brine into the sides along the backbone, being careful to get it all through the thick part.

Fourth:—Dip the sides into the tub of brine, and then lay them on a table or trough and rub thoroughly with dry salt. They must be dipped in brine so that the Freeze-Em-Pickle will get all over the meat, and so the salt will adhere to the meat.

Fifth:—Clean the floor in the cooler or curing room with Ozo Washing Powder; sprinkle the floor lightly with salt, and then pile the sides one on top of the other with the meat side always up. Between each side spread a layer of salt, and see that all parts of the meat are covered with the salt. The more salt put on it the better.

Sixth:—Five days after salting the sides, shake off the salt and pump them again in the same manner as when first salting; dip into the vat of brine, and dry salt again; then stack up the same as in the first instance, putting salt between each layer, and repeating this overhauling every ten days until the sides are cured. 

 

HOW LONG TO CURE DRY SALT SIDES

Light sides will fully cure in from 30 to 35 days and should be resalted three times, which with the first salting received by them, will give them four saltings during the curing period. These saltings are given on the first day, the fifth day, the fifteenth day, and the twenty-fifth day.

 

HOW LONG TO CURE HEAVY DRY SALT SIDES

Heavy sides will be fully cured in from 50 to 60 days, according to size, and should be resalted five times during the curing, as follows: The first day, the fifth day, and then every ten days.

After 45 days, the meat need not be rehandled, and can then remain in the cooler piled up, as long as one wishes to keep it. It should not be taken out of the cooler, however, until it has been in salt for 50 to 60 days, according to the season of the year.

 

TEMPERATURE OF COOLER FOR DRY SALTING

Full information as to the temperature of the cooler for dry salting will be found under the head “Temperature.”

 

DRY SALT CURING BY BUTCHERS WHO HAVE NO ICE MACHINE

Small butchers, who have no ice machines, and simply use an icebox for a cooler, must use the greatest care to see that the meat is well chilled before salting, and they must also use plenty of salt.

For the special benefit of small butchers, we will say that we fully realize the conditions which surround them, and we are well aware that they cannot get the temperature in an icebox as low as with an ice machine; but nevertheless, they can always cure meat with the Freeze-Em-Pickle process, and get better results. 

 

DESCRIPTION OF BARRELED PORK

Mess Pork is made from the sides of well-fattened hogs, split through the backbone, and cut in strips about six inches wide.

Mess Pork Short Cut is made from the backs of prime hogs, split through the backbone, backbone left in, and bellies taken off; cut into pieces six inches square.

Clear Back Pork is made from the fat part of the backs of prime hogs, being free from lean and bone, even in thickness, and cut into pieces about six inches square.

Family Pork Lean is made from the top of shoulders when cut into California Hams. It has one-half of the blade bone-in and is about two-thirds fat, and one-third lean.

Clear Bean or Butt Pork is made from the fat cheek or jowl, cut square.

Clear Brisket Pork is made from the Briskets of prime medium weight hogs, ribs removed and pieces cut about five inches wide.

Rib Brisket Pork is made from the Briskets of prime medium hogs, ribs left in, and cut into pieces about five inches wide.

Loin Pork is made from the end of the back next to the Ham, with both lean and fat, and has a portion of the tail bone-in.

Pig Pork: Light selected boneless Bellies cut into five-inch pieces, trimmed square.

Belly Pork: Selected heavyweight Belies, cut into five-inch pieces, with ribs left in.

Extra Short Clear Pork is made from the sides of hogs, with the loin and backbone removed, and the Belly ribs left in, cut into strips five inches wide, squared at each end.

Lean End Pork is made from selected medium-weight Rib Belies, cut into strips five inches wide. 

 

DIRECTIONS FOR CURING BARRELED PORK

Never pack more than 190 lbs. of pork in an ordinary pork barrel.

First:—If it can possibly be obtained, it is always best to use coarse rock salt, or coarse evaporated salt, which is made especially for this purpose; but if coarse salt cannot be obtained, any salt will answer the purpose. In packing it is necessary to use 35 lbs. of salt for each barrel, over and above the salt used in the brine.

Second:—Take a perfectly clean pork barrel, and throw three handfuls of salt on the bottom of the barrel.

Third:—Put in a layer of pork; throw three handfuls of salt over this layer.

Fourth:—Keep packing layer after layer, until the 190 lbs. of pork is packed in the barrel, and while packing put three handfuls of salt over each layer of the pork.

Fifth:—The following are the proper proportions for brine for 190 lbs. of pork: Put 10 gallons of cold water in a keg or tub; dissolve in this water 2 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle and 30 lbs. of salt. Stir this well until it is all dissolved, and then pour the brine over the pork which has been packed as above directed.

Sixth:—If the barrels are to be headed up, head up first, and then put in the brine through the bunghole.

 

TEMPERATURE FOR BARRELED PORK

It is necessary that the greatest care should be exercised not to let the pork freeze while curing. Brine for barreled pork will not freeze at the freezing point of water, but the meat in the brine will freeze, and will not cure if the temperature is lower than the freezing point for any length of time. See instructions as to Temperature on “Temperature for Curing Meats”.

 

BARRELED PORK NEED NOT BE OVERHAULED

Barreled Pork when packed in accordance with these directions with Freeze-Em-Pickle and Salt, and then stored in a cooler, will not spoil, but will cure with a delicious flavor.

It is not necessary that barreled pork should be overhauled; overhauling is required only for dry salt and sweet-pickled meats. After the pork is fully cured, which will vary according to the size of the pieces, from 40 to 60 days, the pork can be shipped anywhere, into any hot climate, and will remain in perfect condition without spoiling.

Extreme care must be exercised to thoroughly chill the pork before it is packed; if animal heat is left in the pork, it will not cure properly, any more than will hams when they are put into the brine, with the animal heat left in them. Good results when curing barreled pork, cannot be expected if the meat is not in proper condition when packed.

 

DRIPPINGS FROM REFRIGERATING PIPES

Never allow the drippings from refrigerating pipes along the ceiling, or from ice chambers, to drip into open vats containing meats while curing, as they will reduce the strength of the brine and make no end of trouble.

Keep the cooler as dry and as clean as it possibly can be kept. A damp, dirty cooler breeds millions of germs. These germs affect the brine and the curing of the meat. 98


RECIPE FOR CURING SPARE RIBS

For every 100 pounds of spare ribs make the brine as follows: 5 pounds of common salt, 1 pound of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 2 pounds of best-granulated sugar, and 5 gallons of cold water.

Cure in this brine for 10 to 12 days. The temperature of the cooler in which the spare ribs are cured can be anywhere from 36 to 43 degrees, but it should not vary from this range of temperature. It is best to leave the spare ribs in the cure from 10 to 12 days, though they will be cured sufficiently in 7 to 8 days.

If the above method is carefully carried out, the result will be a fine, mild, sweet cure and not too salty.

Before placing the spare ribs in the brine they should be handled in the same manner as hams and shoulders. In other words, they should be rubbed in half of the above quantity of salt, Freeze-Em-Pickle, and sugar, and the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, sugar, and salt that is left after rubbing should be used for making the brine. 


HOW TO CURE BEEF TONGUES

First:—Cut the tongues out of the heads as soon as possible, and with warm water scrub off all the slime and dirt, with a stiff brush; hang up in a cooler on a hook at the gullet, to make the tongues thick instead of long and thin.

Second:—Let them hang for at least 24 hours in a cooler.

Third:—When the tongues are thoroughly chilled and firm, cut off the surplus fat and square the tongues at the gullet by trimming off all ragged pieces.

Fourth:—Put them into a strong common salt brine to beach them, and leave them in this brine for 10 to 20 hours.

Fifth:—Take them out of this brine and rub the slime off the tongues and out of the gullet, and also rub the gullet with dry salt.

Sixth:—If only a few tongues are to be cured make a barrel of pickle, as follows, and simply throw the tongues into it: For every 5 gallons of water, add 1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 2 lbs. of Pure Granulated Sugar, and 7 lbs. of Common Salt. 100

Seventh:—Where large packers wish to pack tongues in tierces, the tongues should be handled as follows: Weigh out 285 lbs.; then mix together in a box or tub the following:

3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
6 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar.
21 lbs. of Salt.

Eighth:—Rub each tongue with some of this mixture and pack as loosely as possible in the tierce, using about one-half of the mixture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt for rubbing, and the other half for making the brine.

It will require between 14 to 15 gallons of brine to fill the tierces, some tierces vary in size, therefore dissolve the balance of the mixture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt in about 14 gallons of water, and pour over the tongues, should the tierce hold more simply add enough cold water to cover all the meat as the right amount of salt has already been added.

Ninth:—If the tierces are to be headed up, the heads should be put in, and the brine should be poured into the tierce through the bunghole. The overhauling of tongues is just as important, as is the overhauling of hams and shoulders. They should be overhauled in the same manner and the same number of times.

By reference to directions for curing hams and shoulders, all the necessary instructions can be followed. To give the tongues a proper flavor, they ought to cure for 50 to 60 days.

 

GARLIC FLAVORED BEEF TONGUES

Many like Garlic Flavored Tongues, and this desire can be fully satisfied by adding about two tablespoonfuls of Vacuum Brand Garlic Compound to each tierce of tongues; add it to the brine before it is poured over the tongues. This will give them a delicious flavor that will be relished even by people who do not like fresh Garlic. 

 
HOW TO CURE HOG TONGUES

Hog Tongues should be handled and cured in exactly the same manner as beef tongues. The brine should be made of the same strength and in the same manner, and when so made, it will cure the hog tongues in about 30 days. The directions for curing Beef Tongues can be used for curing Hog Tongues in every particular.

 

CURING BEEF CHEEKS FOR CANNING

First:—The cheeks should be cut out of the head immediately after the beef is killed, all the fat should be trimmed off, and then the cheeks should be twice cut, lengthwise, through the outside muscles.

Second:—They should be then thrown into ice water to which has been added some salt, and they should be allowed to remain there for an hour or two. This will draw out all the slime and blood.

Third:—The cheeks should then be put on a coarse wire screen, or perforated galvanized iron pan placed in a cooler and spread out as thinly as possible, so as to give them a chance to thoroughly chill. A thorough chilling in a cold cooler will require 24 hours.

Fourth:—The cheeks should then be salted, and packed into tierces; 285 lbs. should be put into each tierce. 102

Fifth:—Handle the cheeks as follows: For every 285 lbs., mix in a box or tub, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of Granulated Sugar, and 15 lbs. of Common Salt.

Sixth:—Then put 285 lbs. of cheeks on a table and take half of the mixture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar, and Salt and mix it with the cheeks thoroughly; then shovel into tierces.

Seventh:—If the tierces are to be headed up, put the heads in and take the balance of the mixture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt and dissolve it in 15 gallons of cold water, which pour into the tierces through the bunghole.

Insert the bung, and roll the tierces. This will mix and dissolve the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt. Overhaul in closed-up tierces simply by rolling them from one end of the cooler to the other. They ought to be rolled at least 100 feet.

Eighth:—If the tierces are to remain open, take 15 gallons of water in which dissolve the remaining mixture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt, and pour this brine over the cheeks; put boards over the top to keep the meat from floating or from coming out of the top of the barrel.

At the end of five days after salting, the cheeks must be overhauled and rehandled by transferring them to another tierce with a large fork made for such purpose; this should be repeated every five days, viz., on the fifth day, on the tenth day and on the fifteenth day.

After each overhauling, the same brine is always used to pour over the meat. If the cheeks are to be kept for any length of time, they should have another overhauling 25 to 30 days from the day they were packed. Cheek meat slime considerably, making it difficult to cure.

When the cheeks are overhauled, if the pickle is thick and ropy, new brine of the same strength as the original brine will have to be made and poured over them, instead of the old brine. The cheek meat must be thoroughly washed in cold water before being put into fresh brine. 

 
CURING HOG LIVERS

Cut off plucks and chill livers thoroughly; then pump them in three or four places with a long slender open nozzle, about 3/16 to ¼ inch in diameter, using a pumping pickle made as follows.

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
12 lbs. of Common Salt.
5 gal. of Water.

Stick the nozzle of the brine pump into the different veins on the lower side of the livers and pump them until they swell up from the pressure of the brine; then lay them out on a rack for 24 hours in a cooler and allow the blood to ooze out of them.

On the next day after the livers have been pumped, pack them in a 60 deg. common salt brine; nothing else needs to be added. Those not having a Hydrometer for testing brine can make the brine by dissolving 15 lbs. of salt in 85 lbs. of water, this makes a 60-degree brine. In this way, the livers can be kept for a long time.

When pickling livers, it is absolutely necessary that all animal heat should be extracted from them, and that they should be properly chilled and cooled, otherwise, they will not keep. 

 

CURING BEEF LIVERS

Cut off plucks and chill livers thoroughly. Pump the curing brine into them in three of four places by using a long slender open nozzle about 3/16 to ¼ inch in diameter, which inserts into the different veins on the lower side of the livers.

The brine should be forced into them until the pressure swells them up; after pumping them, lay them out on a rack for 24 hours in a cooler and allow the blood to ooze out of them. The pumping brine for beef livers is made the same as the brine for hog livers as follows:

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
12 lbs. of Common Salt.
5 gal. of Water.

The day after the livers have been pumped, they should be packed in a 60 deg. common salt brine, which is made by dissolving 15 lbs. of salt in 85 lbs. of water; nothing else needs to be added. All animal heat must be thoroughly extracted, and the livers must be properly chilled and cooled.

 

DIRECTIONS FOR CURING LEAN SHOULDER BUTTS

LIGHTWEIGHT BUTTS

Use for 100 lbs. Light Weight Butts.

5 lbs. of Common Salt,
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle,
2 lbs. Granulated Sugar,
5 gals. of Cold Water.
Cure in this brine 20 to 30 days.

HEAVYWEIGHT BUTTS

Use for 100 lbs.
Heavy Weight Butts.
{ 6 lbs. of Common Salt,
{ 1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle,
{ 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar,
{ 5 gals. of Cold Water.
Cure in this brine for 30 to 40 days according to size.

The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or brown sugar must not be used.

First:—Sort the Butts, separating the Light Weight Butts and the Heavy Weight Butts.

Second:—Take enough of any one size of the assorted 105 Butts to fill a tierce which will be 285 lbs.; then thoroughly mix together in a large pail or box the following proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, the very best and purest Granulated Sugar and Salt.

Use for 285 lbs. of Light Weight Butts, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of Granulated Sugar, and 15 lbs. of Salt.

For 285 lbs. of Heavy Weight Butts, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of Granulated Sugar, and 18 lbs. of Salt.

 

HOW TO CURE BUTTS IN OPEN TIERCES

When the tierces or barrels in which these Butts are cured, are not to be headed up but are left open, use half of the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt for rubbing as follows:

First:—Rub each Butt well with some of the mixture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt. Sprinkle a little of the mixture in the bottom of the tierce.

Second:—Pack the Butts in a perfectly clean tierce. The mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt that is left after rubbing should be used for making the brine. It will require 14 to 15 gallons of brine for each tierce of Butts.

Make the brine by dissolving in cold water all the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt that is left after the Butts are rubbed. Stir well for a minute until it is dissolved, and then pour this brine over the meat.

When curing only a small quantity of Butts, cut down the proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt, also the quantity of water, according to the quantity of Butts to be cured.

 

QUANTITY OF BRINE TO USE FOR CURING 100 LBS. OF BUTTS

Five gallons by measure, or 42 lbs. by weight, is the approximate amount of water to use for every 100 lbs. of meat.

Tierces, after being packed with 285 lbs. of meat, will hold about 15 gallons of water. When curing Butts in vats or open barrels, whether in small or large quantities, always use not less than 5 gallons of brine to 100 lbs. of meat, as this makes the proper strength and sufficient brine to cover the meat. 

 

HOW TO OVERHAUL BUTTS WHEN CURING IN OPEN PACKAGES

On the fifth day after packing each lot of Butts, it is necessary that they should be overhauled. This must be repeated seven days later; again in ten days, and a final overhauling should be given ten days later.

Overhauling Light Butts three times, and Heavy Butts four times while curing, and at the proper time in each instance, is very important, and must never be forgotten, especially when curing with this mild, sweet cure. Overhauling means, to take the Butts out of the brine and repacking them in the same brine.

The proper way to overhaul is to take a perfectly clean tierce, set it next to the tierce of Butts to be overhauled, pack the meat into the empty tierce, and then put this same brine over the meat.

 

HOW TO CURE BUTTS IN CLOSED UP TIERCES

Large packers who employ coopers should always cure Butts in closed-up tierces, as this is the best method known.

First:—Mix the proper proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt, for the different size Butts to be cured.

These proportions are given in the foregoing table, under the heading, “Light Weight Butts, and Heavy Weight Butts.” If the tierces are to be headed up, use half of the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt, for rubbing the Butts, and the half that is left over after the Butts are rubbed should be dissolved in the water which is to be used to fill the tierce.

Rub each Butt well before packing; put only 285 lbs. of meat in each tierce, and then head them up.

Second:—Lay the tierces on their sides and fill them through the bunghole, with water in which the half of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt leftover after rubbing, has been dissolved.

Third:—Insert the bung and roll the tierces. This will mix and dissolve the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt rubbed on the meat.

Where the pieces of meat press tightly against each other, or against the tierce, the brine does not act on the meat; but if the pieces of meat are rubbed properly with the mixture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt before being packed in the tierce, such surfaces will be acted upon by the undissolved mixture, so that the curing will be uniform and no portion of the pieces will be left insufficiently cured, even if the brine does not come in contact with it.

For this reason, it is important that each piece of meat should be carefully rubbed with the mixture before being packed in the tierce.

Fourth:—Overhaul five days after packing; again seven days later, again in ten days, and once more ten days thereafter. At each overhauling, examine each tierce for leaks; if any of the Pickle has leaked out, knock the bung in and refill. Remember to overhaul Light Butts three times, and Heavy Butts four times.

Fifth:—Overhaul Butts in closed-up tierces, simply by rolling the tierces from one end of the cooler to the other. They ought to be rolled at least 100 feet.

 

ROLLED BONELESS BUTTS OR BUTT SAUSAGE

After the Butts are thoroughly cured, they should be stuffed in beef bungs; if they are large only one should be stuffed in each casing; if they are small, two can be stuffed together side by side. The casings should be tied off at each end, and then wound with a heavy string, which should be wrapped as tightly as possible.

Perforate the casings with a fork so as to let out any air that may be in them; then smoke them overnight in a cool smoke; in the morning boil them. If they are to be sold uncooked, dip them in boiling water for five minutes, and then in cold water so as to shrink the casings. Our new Improved Zanzibar Carbon can be used on the casings to give them an appetizing color. See directions for dipping.

 

HOW TO CURE MEAT FOR LUNCH HAM OR NEW ENGLAND STYLE PRESSED HAM
(ALSO CALLED BERLINER STYLE HAM)

The Freeze-Em-Pickle Process is especially adapted for curing Ham trimmings which are used for Berliner Style Hams, Lunch Hams, Boneless Hams, New England Style Pressed Hams, etc. It will cure and preserve Ham trimmings perfectly and will give them a rich, delicate sugar-cured ham flavor.

It does not draw the albumen out of the meat, but the natural binding qualities are retained, and the meat has a rich, red, cured-meat color. Trimmings cured with the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process can be kept in cold storage for a year without getting too salty or becoming short and losing their nice flavor and binding qualities.

The following directions must be carefully followed to get the results desired:

First:—The trimmings should not be larger than an egg, and should be as uniform in size as possible.

Second:—Do not run the trimmings through an Enterprise Grinder to cut them up before packing them, as it has a tendency to heat the meat.

Third:—Trimmings that are to be held for any great length of time must be fresh as possible; if they should be somewhat slimy, they should be washed thoroughly in cold common salt brine and allowed to drain until quite dry. Never mix or salt trimmings that become slimy, with fresh ones; always pack them separately.

Fourth:—It is absolutely necessary that the meat should be thoroughly chilled, and that the packing should be done in the cooler so that the temperature of the meat will not get above the temperature at which it is to be cured.

Fifth:—For every 100 lbs. of trimmings, take 1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 1 lb. of best Granulated Sugar, and 2 lbs. of Common Salt, and mix these thoroughly 109 with the meat. Mixing thoroughly is very important; it should be carefully done so as to ensure a uniform cure.

Sixth:—Have the tierces or barrels perfectly clean and sweet; then sprinkle a little salt on the bottom, and fill the barrel or tierce about one-quarter full of salted meat, and pound it down hard with a tamper. Do the same when the barrel is half full and continue in this manner until the barrel is filled.

This tamping is done to expel the air between the pieces of meat, and it is an important factor to ensure a uniform cure and color. If the trimmings are to be kept any length of time, it will be necessary that the tierces or barrels should be headed up, and they should always be filled with meat as much as possible.

When trimmings are to be used as soon as cured, it is not necessary to head them up, simply put a top on them and weight them down, or cover them with a clean cloth and put a layer of salt about one inch thick, over the top of the cloth. This will keep out the air and will give good results.

The trimmings will be cured in from two to three weeks, and are then in a perfect condition to be made into New England Style Pressed Hams, etc. They need not be soaked in water, nor need any salt to be added as they are ready for instant use just as they are and will have a delicious sugar-cured ham flavor.

See paragraph on Temperature for Curing Meats.

 

HOW TO MAKE NEW ENGLAND STYLE PRESSED HAMS

After the meat is cured, it should be stuffed in beef bungs and should be smoked for about three hours, but this depends upon the smokehouse and whether wood or sawdust is used. It may be necessary to smoke the Pressed Ham still longer.

Boil them in a temperature of 180 degrees Fahrenheit for 1½ hours, then reduce the temperature to 170 degrees Fahrenheit and remove them at the expiration of one hour.

After they are boiled for 2½ hours, they should be laid out on a table in the cooler, and then boards should be placed on top of them weighted down with heavy stones, and should remain there overnight before being removed.

The casings may be given an appetizing smoke color by momentary dipping in a solution of Zanzibar-Carbon Brand Casing Brown Mixture (see momentary dipping for directions). 


Meat Curing Sausage Making links:

Meat Curing – Part 1
General Hints For Curing Meats – Part 2
Hints For Handling Of Meats – Part 3
Sausage Making – Part 4
Meat Curing Sausage Making Q&A (a) – Part 5
Meat Curing Sausage Making Q&A (b) – Part 6
Meat Curing Sausage Making Products – Part 7