meat curing

Meat Curing Plus Sausage Making Information Part 1

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Meat Curing

Secrets of meat curing by the experts: How to cure hams, shoulders, bacon, corned beef, and how to make all kinds of sausage, to comply with the pure food laws.

Published By B. Heller & Co. Manufacturing Chemists, Chicago, USA. December 1922.

 

B. Heller & Co. History

Adolph Heller, the father of the members of the firm of B. Heller & Co., was a scientific and practical Butcher and Packer and a Practical Sausage Manufacturer.

He studied the causes of failure in the handling of meats, with the aim of always producing the best and most uniform products that could be made. He was so successful in his business that his products were known and recognized as the best that could be made.

His sons were all given practical training in all departments of the business, from the bottom rung of the ladder to the top. The problems of the Packing Industry were kept constantly before them in their school and college days and influenced them in the investigations and study which developed into the present business of B. Heller & Co.

Under these circumstances, the Science of Chemistry naturally claimed the sons of Adolph Heller. Naturally, too, the Chemistry of the Meat Industry overshadowed all other branches of the fascinating profession.

With their habits of study and investigation, they soon discovered that one of the great causes of failure in the curing and handling of meat products was the lack of materials that were always uniform, pure, and dependable.

This led to the founding of the firm of B. Heller & Co., whose aim has always been to furnish to the Butchers, Packers, and Sausage Makers such materials as could be absolutely depended upon for purity and uniformity.

They also early found that even with good materials to work with, the lack of fixed rules and formulas contributed largely to the lack of uniformity in the finished goods. This led to the publication of “Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making,” in which definite rules were given for handling all kinds of meats and making all kinds of sausage.

The enactment of the National Pure Food Law, the National Meat Inspection Law, and the various State Pure Food Laws has made a great change in the Butcher, Packing, and Sausage Making Business.

The use of Chemical Preservatives is now prohibited under these various food laws,
making it necessary to preserve meats and manufacture sausage without the use of many agents which were in general use.

The firm of B. Heller & Co. anticipated the enactment of the various food laws, and already had completed investigations which enabled them to assist packers, butchers, and sausage makers at once by giving them curing agents which were free from the Antiseptic Preservatives which these laws prohibited, and yet would produce cured meats, sausage, etc, of the highest quality without the use of the Antiseptic Agents.

The underlying principles for handling meats and making sausage with the antiseptic agents and without them are very different, and it became absolutely necessary that the firm of B. Heller & Co. should furnish their friends and customers such information as would enable them to cure their meats and make their sausage so as not to incur losses from goods that would not keep, and to turn out goods of fine quality and appearance.

The book is the result. In its pages are formulas and rules for the handling of all kinds of meat and the manufacture of all kinds of sausage which are the results of many years of experience as Packing House Experts and Chemists who have made a lifetime study of the business in all its phases.

If the directions and rules are followed, anyone can produce the finest of cured meats and sausage, whether they have had previous experience or not. Furthermore, the products made according to these directions will comply with the requirements of all the Food Laws at present in force in this country.

Packing-House Experts

Benjamin Heller
Albert Heller
Joe Heller
Edward Heller
Harry Heller

Analytical And Consulting Chemists

We have been Consulting Chemists for the Large Packers for many years.
Our advice in the handling of meats has saved Packers many thousands of
dollars. We offer our advice free of charge to our customers. We make a
specialty of both Analytic and Synthetic Chemistry. Our large clientele
will always find us prompt in our services as heretofore.

MAKE YOUR SAUSAGE & CURE YOUR MEATS TO COMPLY WITH ALL PURE FOOD LAWS

The Board of Food and Drug Inspection of the Agricultural Department, at Washington, has permitted the use of certain Curing Agents, by not objecting to their use; but, at the same time, has ruled out, for curing purposes, such chemicals as coming under the heading of Antiseptic Preservatives.

As a consequence, certain chemical preservatives are prohibited in meats and meat food products if they are to be sold in the Territories or are to be shipped from one State to another, or from any State or Territory into any other State or Territory.

For that reason, we have changed some of our former preparations and have also placed on the market several preparations that will take the place of some of our former products.

These new products are Freeze-Em-Pickle, “A” Condimentine, and “B” Condimentine. They contain nothing that has been ruled out by any of the rulings or regulations under any of the Food Laws in this country.

The Antiseptic Preservatives that have been ruled out are Borax, Boracic Acid, Fluoride of Ammonia, Formaldehyde, Benzoic Acid, Sulphurous Acid, Sulphite of Soda, Salicylic Acid, Abrastol, and Beta Naphthol.

The use of some of these Preservatives is considered by many high authorities of the world to be harmless.

However, as the majority of the Food Commissioners of this country object to their use, and have recommended to the State Legislatures and the Congress of the United States that the use of these Preservatives be prohibited by law, and the State Legislatures and the United States Congress have passed laws to this effect; these laws are now in effect and it is, therefore, the duty of every citizen of this country to obey these laws, strictly and to the letter.

In this book, we are giving to the Butchers and Sausage Manufacturers the results of much study and experiment, so as to enable the Butchers and Sausage Makers and Packers to produce goods that will meet the requirements of the various food laws and yet avoid the danger of loss from turning out meat food products that might not keep the necessary length of time. Our methods are original and will produce the most excellent results.

It must be remembered that meat must be handled at the proper temperature and according to certain rules, which must be followed to the letter if the Butcher desires to turn out products of the best quality and of appetizing appearance. No detail mentioned in this book is too small to merit strict attention.

All the materials mentioned for use in these pages are in strict accordance with the various food laws. Nothing is recommended or suggested that would come in conflict with the application of the regulations under the existing food laws.

We invite the correspondence of our customers and whenever they are in any doubt it will afford us much satisfaction to hear from them and to give them full information concerning any feature of their business upon which they desire our advice.

Hoping the following pages will be found instructive and helpful.

 

BEGIN CURING OF MEAT IN THE PEN

Thousands of pounds of Hams, Shoulders, and Sides are spoiled annually before the hog is killed. Overheated hogs, or hogs that are excited from overdriving, should never be killed until they are cooled off or have become perfectly quiet.

When the temperature of a hog is above normal, the meat always becomes feverish. This is especially true of large fat hogs, and when the meat becomes feverish, it will never cure properly, but nine times out of ten will sour. The meat of feverish hogs can never be chilled as it should be, and unless the meat is properly chilled, it cannot be properly cured.

Before hogs are killed, they ought to be driven into a cool place and if necessary, sprayed with cold water until they are thoroughly cooled off. This precaution is necessary only in hot weather; in winter, they simply need plenty of rest.

If it is necessary to hold the hogs for several days in the pen before they are killed, they should have an abundance of water and also a little feed. This prevents shrinkage and will also keep them from getting nervous from hunger. 33

CURING PORK THE YEAR AROUND

Up to a comparatively few years ago, all Pork Packing was done in the winter. Packing Houses would fill their plants during the winter months, and in the spring would smoke out the meats. In this way, most of the meat had to be sold oversalted, the shrinkage and loss to the Packer was greater and meats, therefore, had to be sold at a much higher price, besides, they were of very inferior quality.

At the present time, due to improved methods, packing can be done all year-round, and meat can be sold as fast as it is finished. In this way, cured meat can be produced at a much lower price, the money invested in it can be turned over four, five, or six times a year, and the meat will be much better, taste better and more of it can be eaten because of the fact that it is more wholesome and more easily digested.

 

HOISTING HOGS IN A LARGE PACKING HOUSE, WITH A HOG-HOISTING MACHINE

Great care should always be exercised when hogs are hoisted before sticking. When hogs are hoisted alive to be stuck, very often when a very heavy hog is jerked from the floor, the hip is dislocated or sprained, and blood will be thrown out around the injured joint, so the Ham will be spoiled.

Great care should also be exercised in driving the live hogs, as hogs are the heaviest and weakest, and easiest injured of all animals.

Special pens should be provided for them, so they are not crowded, and so they have plenty of room when they are driven to the killing pen. They should be handled very carefully, and piling up and crowding should be avoided as much as possible.

Many hams are injured by overcrowding the hogs in the killing pens, for when hogs smell blood they become excited and nervous, and unless they have plenty of room, they will pile upon each other and bruise themselves so that there will be many skin-bruised hams, and the flesh will be full of bruises.

Men driving hogs should never use a whip. The best thing to use in driving hogs is a stick about two feet long, to the end of which is fastened a piece of canvas three inches wide and two feet long. By striking the hogs with this canvas, it makes a noise that will do more towards driving them, without injury, than the whip which will injure and discolor the skin.

 

STICKING HOGS IN A MODERN PACKING HOUSE

Men sticking hogs should be sure to make a good, large opening in the neck, three or four inches long, in order to give the blood a good, free flow. It is very necessary to sever the veins and arteries in the neck, so as to get all of the blood out of the hog.

The man who does the sticking must be careful not to stick the knife into the shoulder, for if the shoulder is stuck, the blood settles there, and the bloody part will have to be trimmed out after the hog is cut up.

In large Packing Houses, there is a report made out every day, of the number of shoulder-stuck hogs, and the sticker must sign this report before it is sent to the office. This shows the sticker the kind of work he is doing and makes him more careful. In small houses, most butchers stick the hogs on the floor and let them bleed there.

Those who can possibly do it should hoist the hog by the hind leg before it is stuck or immediately after it is stuck, as the case may be, so as to allow the hog to properly bleed.

When the hog is properly hoisted by one hind leg, alive, and then stuck while hanging, it will kick considerably and the kicking and jerking of the hog will help in pumping out all of the blood, making a much better-bled carcass than if the hog is first stunned with a hammer and stuck on the floor. The better the hog is bled, the better the meat will be for curing.

 

SCALDING HOGS

It is impossible to give the exact temperature one should use in scalding hogs, as this will vary under different circumstances. In winter the hair sticks much tighter than in summer and requires more scalding and more heat than in summer.

Hogs raised in the South, in a warm climate, will scald much easier than those raised in a northern climate. A butcher will soon learn which temperature is best adapted to his own locality and the kind of hogs he is scalding. In a Packing House where a long scalding tub is used, the temperature depends entirely upon how fast the hogs are being killed.

If the hogs are killed slowly, so each hog can remain in the water longer, it is not necessary to have the water as hot as when they are handled fast and are taken out of the water in a shorter time. It is, however, universally acknowledged that the quicker a hog can be taken out of the scalding tub the better it is for the meat.

The hog is a great conductor of heat, and when kept in the scalding water too long, it becomes considerably heated and bad results have many times been traced to the fact that the hog was scalded in water that was not hot enough, and was kept in this water too long in order to loosen the hair.

Overheating the hog in the scalding water very often causes the meat of fat hogs to sour and Packers wonder why it is that the meat has spoiled. We, therefore, wish to caution Packers against this and to advise the use of water as hot as practicable for scalding hogs.

To make the hair easy to remove and to remove dirt and impurities from the skin, we recommend Hog-Scald. This preparation makes scalding easy, it removes most of the dirt and filth, cleanses the hog, and whitens the skin.

In many localities, where the water is hard, Hog-Scald will be found of great value, as it softens the water and makes it nice to work with; it cleanses the skin of the hogs and improves their appearance. It is a great labor saver and more than pays the cost by the labor it saves, as it assists in removing the hair and leaves the skin more yielding to the scraper.

The skin of all hogs is covered with more or less greasy filth, which contains millions of disease germs and these extend down into the pores of the skin.

If this germ-laden filth is not removed, and if it gets into the brine when the meat is being cured, it injures both the meat and the brine in flavor and also spoils the flavor of the lard if it gets into that. Hog-Scald removes most of this filth and cleanses the skin, and for these reasons alone, should be used by every Packer and Butcher.

Hams and Bacon from hogs that have been scalded with Hog-Scald are, therefore, cleaner and will be much brighter after they are smoked than when the filth of the hog remains in the pores of the skin.

Those selling dressed hogs will find Hog-Scald very valuable, as hogs that have been scalded with it are cleaner and look whiter and much more appetizing.

The use of Hog-Scald is legal everywhere. It does not come under the regulations of the Food Laws, as it is simply a cleansing agent. Hog-Scald costs very little at the price we sell it, and everyone can afford to use it. Butchers who once try it will continue its use.

SCRAPING HOGS

As much of the hair as possible should be scraped from the hogs, instead of being shaved off with a sharp knife, as is often done. If the hog is not properly scalded and scraped and the hair remains in the skin, such hair is usually shaved off with a knife before the hog is gutted, and sometimes after the meat is chilled and cut up.

After the meat is cured, the rind shrinks, and all the stubs of hair that have been shaved off will stick out and the rind will be rough like a man’s face when he has not been shaved for a day or so.

Hams and Bacon from hogs that have been shaved instead of properly scalded and scraped, will look much rougher and much more unsightly than if the hogs are properly scalded and scraped. Therefore, the Packers should give close attention that the scalding and scraping is properly done.

The scraping bench should be provided with a hose right above where the hogs are being scraped and this should be supplied with hot water, if possible, so the hogs can be rinsed off occasionally with hot water while being scraped. The hot water can, however, be thrown over the hogs with a bucket.

After the hog has been gambrelled and hung up, either on a gambrel-stick or on rollers, it should be gutted. After it is gutted, it should be washed out 39 thoroughly, with plenty of cold, fresh water. As every Packer understands how to gut a hog, it is not necessary to go into details.

CUTTING THE HIND SHANK BONE

We advise the cutting of the hind shank bone after the hog is dressed, so as to expose the marrow. It is the best thing to do, as it helps to chill the marrow.

The chunk of meat that is usually left on the hindfoot, above and next to the knee, if cut loose around the knee, will be drawn to the ham, and when chilled, will remain on the ham instead of being on the hindfoot. After the meat is cut, the bone can be sawed, in the same place where the hock would be cut from the ham later.

The hog will hang on the sinews the same as if the bone had not been sawed, except that the cut bone separates and exposes the marrow so it can be properly cooled. On heavy hogs, this is quite a gain, as the chunk that would remain on the foot would be of little or no value there, but when left on the ham, sells for the regular ham prices.


FACING HAMS AND PULLING LEAF LARD IN A MODERN PACKING HOUSE

The advantage of Facing Hams right after the hogs are dressed, is this. The knife can be drawn through the skin and through the fat close to the meat, and the fat will peel right off the fleshy part of the Ham. Between the fat and lean meat of the Ham, between the legs, there is a fibrous membrane that is very soft and pliable.

When the knife is run through the skin and fat, it will run along the side of this membrane, making a clean face for the Ham. That part remaining on the Ham will shrink to the Ham and will form a smooth coating over the lean meat, which closes the pores and makes the Ham look smooth and nice when it is smoked. It also makes a much smoother cut along the skin.

The skin when cut warm will dry nicely and look smooth when cured, whereas if it is trimmed after the meat is chilled, it looks rough and ragged. Facing Hams also allows the escape of the animal heat more readily. If Hams are not faced until after the Hogs have been chilled, this fat must be trimmed off and the Hams will not look nearly so smooth as they will if this tissue and fat is removed while the hog is warm.

The Leaf Lard should always be pulled out of the hogs in summer, as it gives the hogs, as well as the Leaf Lard, a better chance to chill. During the winter months, it can be pulled loose but can be left hanging loosely in the hog, from the top. In this way, it will cool nicely, and it will also allow the animal heat to get out of the hog.

Most of the large packing houses pull out the Leaf Lard in the winter as well as summer and hang it on hooks in the chill room to chill. Leaf Lard that is properly chilled, with the animal heat all taken out of it, makes much finer lard than when pulled out of the hog and put into the rendering tank with the animal heat in it.

 

SPLITTING HOGS IN A MODERN PACKING HOUSE

Splitting can be done in several different ways. Where the back of the hog is to be cut up for pork loins, the hog is simply split through the center of the backbone, so that one half of the backbone remains on each loin.

Packers who wish to cut the sides into Short or Long Clears or Clear Bacon Backs run the knife down on both sides of the backbone, as close to the backbone as possible, cutting through the skin, fat, and lean meat; then the hog should be split down on one side of the backbone. The backbone should remain on the one side until the hog is cut up and it can then easily be sawed off with a small saw.

By cutting or scoring the back in this way for making boneless side meat, the sides will be smooth and there will not be much waste left on the bone as when the backbone is split and half of it left on each side and then is peeled out after the meat is chilled and is being cut up.

 

HOG CHILL ROOM IN A MODERN PACKING HOUSE

Many chill rooms are not properly built. There should be at least from 24 to 36 inches of space between the ceiling of the chilling room and the gambrel-stick, or more if possible, in order to enable the shanks to become thoroughly chilled.

The animal heat which leaves the carcass naturally rises to the top of the cooler, and unless there is space between the ceiling and the top of the hog the heat will accumulate in the top of the cooler where the temperature will become quite warm; this will prevent the marrow in the shank and the joints from becoming properly chilled. It is this fact that accounts for so much marrow and shank sour in hams.

 

TEMPERATURE OF CHILL ROOM

All Packers who have a properly built cooler for chilling hogs and who are property equipped with an ice machine will find the following rules will give the best results. Those who are not properly equipped should try to follow these rules as closely as they can with their equipment.

A hog chill room should be down from 28 to 32 degrees Fahrenheit when the hogs are run into it.

As the cooler is filled, the temperature will be raised to as high as 45 or 46 degrees F., but enough refrigeration must be kept on so the temperature is brought down to 36 degrees by the end of 12 hours after the cooler is filled, and then the temperature must be gradually reduced down as low as 32 degrees by the time the carcasses have been in the cooler 48 hours.

In other words, at the end of 48 hours, the cooler must be down to 32 degrees.

All large hog coolers should be partitioned off between each section of timbers, into long alleys, so that each alley can be kept at its own temperature.

In the improper chilling of the carcasses lies the greatest danger of spoiling the meat. The greatest care must be given to the proper chilling, for if the carcasses are not properly chilled, it will be very difficult to cure the meat, and it will be liable to sour in the curing.

Meat from improperly chilled carcasses, even with the greatest care afterwards, will not cure properly. Therefore, one of the first places to look for trouble when Hams are turning out sour is to look to the chilling of the meat, as it is nine chances out of ten that this is where the trouble started from. We have found by experience that by deviating only a few degrees from these set rules, the percentage of sour meat is surprisingly increased.

It has always been considered an absolute necessity to have an open-air hanging room to allow the hogs to cool off in the open air before they are run into the cooler. It has always been considered that this saves considerable money in the refrigeration of the hogs. However, by the experiments made in some of the large Packing Houses, it has been demonstrated that this economy is very much over-estimated.

There are certain conditions that must be closely adhered to for 44 the safe handling and curing of pork products, and the most important of these is the proper temperature. In the outside atmosphere, the proper temperature rarely prevails.

Hogs that are left in the open air on the hanging floor overnight are generally either insufficiently chilled or are over-chilled the next morning, depending upon the outside temperature of the air. We feel that it is of advantage, however, to run the hogs into an outside hanging room and to allow them to dry for one or two hours before putting them into the chilling room.

Packers who cure large quantities of hogs must see to it that their chill rooms are properly constructed and have sufficient refrigeration, so the temperature can be kept under perfect control at all times.

The cooler should be partitioned off lengthwise, between each line of posts, making long alleys to run the hogs into, each one of which can be regulated as to its temperature separately from the others.

The hogs can be run into one of these alleys as fast as they are killed and should the temperature get up above 50 degrees F., the hogs can be run out of this into another. The cooler in which hogs are chilled should never go above 50 degrees Fahrenheit, and a properly constructed cooler can be kept below this temperature.

While the cooler is being filled, the temperature should be held at between 45 and 50 degrees Fahrenheit and should be kept at this temperature for about two hours after filling. At the end of two hours, all of the vapor will have passed away, being taken up by and frozen onto the refrigerator pipes, and the hogs will begin to dry.

When the hogs begin to show signs of drying, or in about two hours after the refrigerator is filled, more refrigeration should be turned on, and the temperature should be gradually brought down, so that in twelve hours from the time the cooler is filled, the temperature should be brought down to 36 or 37 degrees temperature Fahrenheit.

If the temperature is not brought down to 36 or 37 degrees F. in 12 hours it means a delay in removing the animal heat, and a tendency for decomposition to set in. If the temperature is brought down lower than 32 degrees Fahrenheit during the first 12 hours, the outside surface of the carcasses are too rapidly chilled, which tends to retard the escape of the animal heat.

It is known, from practical experience, that where the meat is chilled through rather slowly, the animal heat leaves the meat more uniformly. Too rapid chilling on the outside seems to clog up the outside of the meat so that the heat in the thick portions does not readily escape.

The first 12 hours of the chilling of all kinds of meat and the removal of the animal heat during this period is the most important part of the chilling. After that period, the proper temperature is of much less vital importance.

Hogs that are to be cut up for curing should never be cut up sooner than 48 hours after being killed, and the temperature of the cooler should be gradually brought down to 28 degrees Fahrenheit by the time the hogs are taken out of the chill room to be cut up.

After the hogs have been in the cooler 12 hours the temperature should gradually be brought down from 36 degrees at the end of the first 12 hours, to 28 degrees at the end of 48 hours; that is if the hogs are to be cut up 48 hours after they are killed.

If they are to be cut up 72 hours after being killed, the temperature should be brought down gradually from 36 degrees at the end of the first 12 hours, to 30 degrees F. at the end of 72 hours.

This would mean that the temperature should be brought down from 36 degrees to 30 degrees Fahrenheit if the hogs are to be cut up at the end of 72 hours, or a lowering of six degrees in practically 58 hours; or a lowering of eight degrees, from 36 to 28 Fahrenheit, if the hogs are to be cut up in 48 hours after being killed. This means a reduction in the temperature of about one degree every eight hours.

This does not mean that the six or eight degrees should be reduced in two hours’ time, for if that were done the meat would be frozen.

In a large Packing House, where the cooler is properly equipped, and one has a good attendant, these instructions can be carried out in detail. When the foregoing instructions are carefully followed, the safe curing of the product will be assured.

While the curing of course requires careful attention, yet, if the chilling is not done properly, the curing will never be perfect.

The floors of coolers should always be kept sprinkled with clean sawdust, as this will absorb drippings and assist in keeping the cooler clean and sweet. If the drippings from hogs are allowed to fall on the bare floor, the cooler will soon become sour and this will affect the meat that hangs over it.

 

TEMPERATURE FOR CURING MEAT

An even temperature of 38 degrees Fahrenheit is the best temperature for curing meats.

Most butchers, however, have no ice machine, and, therefore, are not able to reach such a low temperature in their coolers; nevertheless, they should try to get their coolers as low in temperature as possible, and should at all times be careful to keep the doors closed, and not leave them open longer than is necessary at any time.

The temperature of 37 to 39 degrees Fahrenheit is what should govern all packers who use ice machines; those who are fortunate enough to have ice machinery should never allow the cooler to get below 37 degrees, nor above 40 degrees.

Many packers let the temperature in their coolers get too cold, and in winter during the very cold weather, the windows are sometimes left open, which allows the temperature to get too low. This should always be avoided, as the meat will not cure in any brine, or take salt when dry salted if stored in a room that is below 36 degrees Fahrenheit.

If meat is packed even in the strongest kind of brine and put into a cooler, which is kept at 32 to 33 degrees of temperature, and thus left at this degree of cold for three months, it will come out of the brine only partly cured.

The reason for this is the fact that meat will not cure and take on salt at such a low temperature, and as the temperature herein given is above freezing point, which is 32 degrees, the meat will only keep for a short time, and then it starts to decompose when taken into a higher temperature.

Anyone, who is unaware of this fact, will see how necessary it is to have accurate thermometers in a cooler, to examine them frequently, and to closely watch the temperature of the room.

The first essential point to watch before putting meat into brine is to be absolutely certain that it is properly chilled through to the bone. Those who are not equipped with ice machinery for properly chilling meat in hot weather must spread the meat on the floor after it is cut ready for packing, and place crushed ice over it for 24 hours, to thoroughly chill it before it is packed in the salt.

This will get the temperature of the meat as low as 36 to 38 degrees Fahrenheit before putting it in the brine. It is necessary that small butchers, who have no ice machines and rely upon the icebox for a cooler, should use the greatest care to see that the meat is well and thoroughly chilled.

Thousands of pounds of meat are spoiled yearly simply for the one reason that the temperature of the meat is not brought down low enough before the meat is salted.

In the summer, hams and heavy pieces of pork should never be packed by persons having no ice machine, unless the meat is first put on the floor for at least twelve hours with broken ice to thoroughly cover it. If our directions are carefully followed and Freeze-Em-Pickle is used, such a thing as spoiled meat will be unknown.

CONDITION OF MEAT BEFORE CURING

When cured meat turns out bad, it is not always the fault of the man who has charge of the curing so much as it is the condition the meat was in when put into the brine to cure. Good results should not be expected from a man who has charge of the curing unless the meat is delivered to him in proper condition.

Hogs should never be killed the same day of purchase at the Stock Yards or from the farmer. They ought to remain in the packing house pen for at least 24 hours before killing. If different lots of hogs are mixed together, they will sometimes fight, which greatly excites them. Whenever they show this fighting disposition, they should be separated.

THE TEMPERATURE OF THE BRINE

Make all Pickle in the cooler, and have the water or brine of as low a temperature as the cooler when it is put on the meat. Try to have the temperature of the brine not over 38 degrees Fahrenheit when putting it over the meat. A great deal of meat is spoiled in curing by having the brine too warm when the meat is put into it.

GIVE CLOSE ATTENTION TO DETAILS

Be careful to do everything right as you go along, for if you spoil the meat you will hardly become aware of it until it is too late to remedy your error.


WITH THE FREEZE-EM-PICKLE PROCESS AND “A” AND “B” CONDIMENTINE ANYONE CAN CURE MEAT AND MAKE GOOD SAUSAGE

Bacterial action causes great annoyance and loss to Curers of Meats and Sausage Manufacturers, and, since the enactment of Pure Food Laws prohibiting the use of antiseptic preservatives, the proper handling of meats has become a matter of the greatest importance if good sausage and well-cured meats are to be produced.

We have acted as Consulting Experts for the large Packers and Sausage Manufacturers for many years, and have formulated and systematized methods for the curing of all kinds of meat and the making of all kinds of sausage.

We have crystallized the results of our large experience into a plan for the proper curing of meats and the making of all kinds of sausage, which, if followed, will always give satisfactory results.

For curing meat, we have combined the necessary curing agents for this Process into a combination that is always uniform and which is known as Freeze-Em-Pickle.

Freeze-Em-Pickle furnishes to the Packer, Butcher and Sausage Maker the proper materials, scientifically 49 and accurately compounded, and by using it according to the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, which is set forth in this book, any man, whether he is experienced or not, can get as good results as the most expert packer in the business.

If the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process is followed, and Freeze-Em-Pickle is used according to the directions given in this book, the meats and sausage will be uniform and of fine quality. They will have an appetizing color, a delicious flavor and they will comply with the requirements of the Pure Food Laws.

By curing meat by the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, the albumen in the meat is so congealed that only a small percentage of it will be drawn out of the meat into the brine, and the natural flavor of the meat is retained, making it far more palatable.

When Freeze-Em-Pickle is dissolved in water with the proper quantity of sugar and salt, the brine will be decidedly sweet and of the proper specific gravity to properly cure Hams, Bacon, Shoulders, Corned Beef, Dried Beef, etc., with a Delicious Flavor, without loss from spoiling.

The meat will not be too Salty but will have that Peculiar Sugar-Cured Flavor that is so much liked. By the use of the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, anyone can make fine cured meats, whether or not they have ever had any previous experience in the curing or handling of meats.

Packers, Butchers, and Curers have many difficulties in turning out good, sweet-pickle cured meat, owing to their inability to compound the proper proportions of curing ingredients. Besides, their methods of curing are frequently incorrect and unscientific.

By adopting the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, the proper ingredients are used and the meat is handled in the right way. That is why the finished products made by the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process are superior to what they are when made in other ways.

In making Bologna and Frankfurt Sausage, if the sausage meat is cured for a few days with Freeze-Em-Pickle and handled according to the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process of curing Bologna and Frankfurt Sausage Meat it will produce Finer Sausage, in both taste and appearance, and will have an appetizing color and will not spoil in hot weather, within a reasonable length of time, and the sausage will comply with the Pure Food Laws.

 

DIRECTIONS FOR CURING HAMS

Use the following proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Salt, Sugar, and Water to obtain the best results in curing Hams:

Small Hams, 8 to 14 Lbs. Average

Use for 100 lbs.

Small Hams

7 lbs. of Common Salt.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
5 gals. of Cold Water.
Cure in this brine for 50 to 60 days.

Medium Hams, 14 to 18 Lbs. Average

Use for 100 lbs.

Medium Hams

8 lbs. of Common Salt.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
5 gals. of Cold Water.
Cure in this brine for 60 to 70 days.

Heavy Hams, 18 to 24 Lbs. Average

Use for 100 lbs.

Heavy Hams

9 lbs. of Common Salt.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
5 gals. of Cold Water.
Cure in this brine for 75 to 80 days.

First:—Sort the Hams, separating the Small, Medium, and Large.

Second:—Take enough of any one size of the assorted Hams to fill a tierce, which will be 285 lbs.; then thoroughly mix together in a large pail or box the following proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar, and Salt:

More than 285 lbs. of Hams can be packed in a tierce, but this never should be done, as it requires a certain amount of brine to a certain amount of meat, and by placing 285 lbs. of fresh Hams in a standard tierce, the tierce will hold 14 to 15 gallons of brine, which is the proper quantity of brine for this amount of Hams. If too much meat is put into the tierce, it will not hold enough brine to properly cure the meat.

The Sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar. Yellow or Brown Sugar must not be used.

Use, for 285 lbs. of Small Hams, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of best Granulated Sugar, and 21 lbs. of Salt.

For 285 lbs. of Medium Hams, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of best Granulated Sugar, and 24 lbs. of Salt.

For 285 lbs. of Heavy Hams, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of best Granulated Sugar, and 27 lbs. of Salt.

HOW TO CURE HAMS IN OPEN BARRELS

When the tierces or barrels in which these Hams are cured are not to be headed up but are left open, use half of the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar, and Salt dry by rubbing it over the hams in the following manner:

First:—After mixing all of the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar, and Salt together, sprinkle some of the dry mixture over the bottom of a perfectly clean tierce.

The Sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar. Yellow or Brown Sugar must not be used. When adulterated sugar is used, the brine becomes thick in two weeks; but when Pure Granulated Sugar is used it will last quite a while, depending upon the conditions under which the brine is kept.

Second:—Rub each Ham well with some of the mixture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar and Salt and pack them nicely in the tierce. Put clean boards over the tops of the hams and weight or fasten these boards down so as to keep them under the brine.

Third:—Take all of the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar, and Salt that is left after the rubbing and use it in making the brine; it will require 14 to 15 gallons of brine, as tierces vary some, for 52 each standard size tierce of Hams.

Make the brine by dissolving in about 14 gallons of cold water all of the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar, and Salt that is left after the rubbing. Stir well for a minute, until it is dissolved, then pour this brine over the meat.

As tierces vary so much in size, it is always best to dissolve the Freeze-Em-Pickle in a little less quantity of water, say about 14 gallons for a tierce. After this brine is added to the meat, should the tierce hold more, simply add cold water until the tierce is full. The right amount of Salt, etc., has already been added; now simply add sufficient water to well cover the meat.

When curing a less quantity than a full tierce of Hams, cut down the amount of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar, and Salt and the quantity of water, according to the number of Hams to be cured, using all materials in the proportions given.

QUANTITY OF BRINE TO USE FOR CURING 100 LBS. OF HAMS

Five gallons by measure, or forty-two pounds by weight, is the approximate amount of water to use for every 100 lbs. of Hams.

A tierce, after being packed with 285 lbs. of meat, will hold about 14 to 15 gallons of water. When curing Hams in vats, or open barrels, whether in small or large quantity, always use no less than five gallons of brine to every 100 pounds of meat, as this makes the proper strength and a sufficient brine to cover the meat nicely.

THE USE OF MOLASSES AND SYRUP BARRELS IN CURING HAMS

Never use old molasses barrels, or syrup barrels for curing meat, unless they have been first thoroughly scoured and steamed, and cleansed with our Ozo Washing Compound. It is best to use oak tierces, and always be sure that they are perfectly clean and sweet before putting the meat into them to cure.

PUMPING HAMS

We strongly recommend the pumping of Hams.

SHAPE OF VATS IN CURING HAMS

Sometimes, vats of certain shapes require more brine to cover the meat than others, and in such cases, a proportionate amount of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt, should be added to the necessary amount of water to make sufficient brine to cover the meat.

HOW TO OVERHAUL HAMS WHEN CURING IN OPEN PACKAGES

On the fifth day after packing each lot of Hams, it is necessary that they should be overhauled. This must be repeated seven days later; again in ten days; and a final overhauling should be given ten days later.

Overhauling four times while curing, and at the proper time in each instance, is very important and must never be forgotten, especially when curing with this mild, sweet cure.

Overhauling means taking the Hams out of the brine and repacking them in the same brine. The proper way to overhaul is to take a perfectly clean tierce, set it next to the tierce of Hams to be overhauled, pack the meat into the empty tierce, and then pour the same brine over the meat.

HOW TO CURE HAMS IN CLOSED UP TIERCES

Large packers, who employ coopers, should always cure Hams in closed-up tierces, as this is the best method known.

First:—Mix the proper proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt for the different size Hams to be cured. These proportions are given in the table under the heading, “Small Hams, Medium Hams, Heavy Hams.”

If the tierces are to be headed up, use half of the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt for rubbing the Hams, and the half that is left over, after the Hams are rubbed, should be dissolved in the water which is to be used to fill the tierces. Rub each Ham well before packing; put only 285 lbs. of meat in each tierce, and then head them up.

Second:—Lay the tierces on their sides and fill them through the bunghole with water in which the half of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt leftover after rubbing, has been dissolved.

Third:—Insert the bung and roll the tierces. This will mix and dissolve the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt rubbed on the meat.

Where the pieces of meat press tightly against each other or against the tierce, the brine does not act on the meats; but if the meats are properly rubbed with the mixture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt before being packed in the tierce, such surfaces will be acted upon by the undissolved mixture, so that curing will be uniform, and no portion of the piece will be left insufficiently cured even if the brine does not come in contact with it.

For this reason, it is important that each piece should be carefully rubbed with the mixture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt before being packed in the tierce.

Fourth:—Overhaul five days after packing; again seven days later; again in ten days, and once more ten days thereafter. At each overhauling, examine each tierce for leaks; if any of the Pickle has leaked out, knock the bung in and refill. Remember to overhaul four times during the period of the first thirty-two days.

Fifth:—Overhaul the Hams in closed-up tierces, simply by rolling the tierces from one end of the cooler to the other. They ought to be rolled at least 100 feet.

Sixth:—See paragraph on temperature for curing meat.

DIRECTIONS FOR CURING SHOULDERS

New York Shoulders:—Have shank cut off above the knee, trimmed close and smooth, and square at the butt.

California or Picnic Hams are made from Medium and Heavy Shoulders, well-rounded at the butt, and trimmed as near to the shape of a Ham as possible.

Boston Shoulders are made from Light Shoulders, well-rounded at the butt, similar to California Hams.

California and Picnic Hams and Square-Cut Butts, are cured in the same way, and with the same brine, the only change being in the strength of the brine and the time of curing, which must be made to suit the size of the Shoulder.

Small Shoulders

Use for 100 lbs. Small Shoulders.

7 lbs. of Common Salt.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
5 gals. of Cold Water.
Cure in this brine for 50 to 60 days.

Medium Shoulders

Use for 100 lbs.

Medium Shoulders. { 8 lbs. of Common Salt.

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle
2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
5 gals. of Cold Water.
Cure in this brine for 60 to 70 days.

Heavy Shoulders

Use for 100 lbs.

Heavy Shoulders. { 9 lbs. of Common Salt.

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
5 gals. of Cold Water.
Cure in this brine 75 to 80 days.

The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or brown sugar must not be used.

First.—Sort the Shoulders, separating the Small, Medium and Large.

Second.—Take enough of any one size of the assorted Shoulders to fill a tierce, which will be 285 lbs.; then thoroughly mix together in a large pail, or box, the following proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt:

Use for 285 lbs. of Small Shoulders, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of best pure Granulated Sugar, and 21 lbs. of Salt.

For 285 lbs. of Medium Shoulders, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of best Granulated Sugar, and 24 lbs. of Salt.

For 285 lbs. of Heavy Shoulders, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of best Granulated Sugar, and 27 lbs. of Salt.

Curing Shoulders in Open Packages

When it is desired to cure Shoulders in Open Packages, use the foregoing proportions and in every way handle the Shoulders as directed for Hams.

Quantity of Brine for Curing 100 Lbs. of Shoulders

The same quantity of brine should be used for curing Shoulders as directed for Curing Hams.

Quantity of Shoulders to Cure in Each Tierce

The same quantity of Shoulders and the same amount of brine should be used. The same remarks with regard to the variation in the amount of brine for each tierce, and how to be sure to have the proper amount of the right strength of brine, apply in curing Shoulders, the same as for Hams. Likewise do not use Syrup and Molasses barrels for Curing Shoulders.

How to Overhaul Shoulders When Curing in Open Packages

It is important to follow the same directions for Overhauling Shoulders that are given for Overhauling Hams.

How to Cure Shoulders in Closed Up Tierces

Follow the same directions for Curing Shoulders as given for Curing Hams in Closed Up Tierces.

How to Overhaul Shoulders When Cured in Closed Up Tierces

Follow exactly the same instructions as are given for Overhauling Hams when cured in Closed Up Tierces.

Pumping Shoulders

Pump Shoulders as directed on “Directions for Pumping”.

BONELESS ROLLED SHOULDERS

Boneless Rolled Shoulders should be made in the following manner:

Take the Shoulders from hogs that have been properly chilled and bone them.

If the meat has been thoroughly chilled, so it is perfectly solid and chilled throughout, the Shoulders are ready to cure; but if the meat is not perfectly solid and firm on the inside, where the bone has been removed, the Shoulders should be spread out in the cooler on racks for 24 hours, until the meat is thoroughly chilled and firm.

Small Boneless Rolled Shoulders

Use for 100 lbs. Small Boned Shoulders.

7 lbs. of Common Salt.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
2 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar.
5 gallons of Cold Water.
Cure in this brine for 30 to 40 days.

Medium Boneless Rolled Shoulders

Use for 100 lbs. Medium Boned Shoulders.

8 lbs. of Common Salt.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
2 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar.
5 gallons of Cold Water.
Cure in this brine for 40 to 50 days.

Large Boneless Rolled Shoulders

Use for 100 lbs. Large Boned Shoulders.

9 lbs. of Common Salt.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
2 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar.
5 gallons of Cold Water.
Cure in this brine for 50 to 60 days.

The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or brown sugar must not be used.

First:—Sort the Boneless Shoulders, separating the Small, Medium, and Large, as the different sizes should be cured in separate barrels.

Second:—Take enough of any one size of the Boned Shoulders to fill a tierce, which will be 285 lbs. Then thoroughly mix together, in a large pail or box, the following proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt: 60

Use for 285 lbs. of Small Boneless Shoulders, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar, and 21 lbs. of Salt.

Use for 285 lbs. of Medium Boneless Shoulders, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar, and 24 lbs. of Salt.

Use for 285 lbs. of Large Boneless Shoulders, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar, and 27 lbs. of Salt.

Third:—After the Shoulders have been weighed, take for example that one has 285 lbs. of Medium Boneless Shoulders, averaging, boned, about 10 lbs., which would make 28 pieces for a tierce of 285 lbs. Now, take the 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of Granulated Sugar and 24 lbs. of Salt to be used for the tierce of Medium Shoulders, and mix together thoroughly in a box or tub.

Fourth:—Rub about ¼ lb. of this mixture in each Shoulder where the bone has been removed, then roll it and tie it in the regular way.

After it is rolled and tied, rub about ¼ lb. of the mixture all over the outside, and pack the Shoulders into the tierce. After the 28 Boneless Shoulders have been packed nicely into the tierce, put clean boards over the top of the meat and weight or fasten down these boards, so as to keep them under the brine.

The sugar must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or brown sugar must not be used. When adulterated sugar is used the brine becomes thick in two weeks, but when Pure Granulated Sugar is used it will last quite a while, depending upon the conditions under which the brine is kept.

Fifth:—Take all of the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar, and Salt that is left after rubbing the meat, and use it in making the brine. It will require between 14 and 15 gallons of brine, as tierces vary somewhat in size, for each standard size tierce of Boneless Shoulders.

Make the brine by dissolving in about 14 gallons of water all of the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar, and Salt that is left after rubbing. As tierces vary so in size, it is always best to dissolve the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt in a less quantity of water, say about 14 gallons for a tierce.

After this brine is added to the meat, should the tierce hold more, simply add cold water until the tierce is filled. The right amount of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 61 Sugar and Salt has already been added, now simply add sufficient water to well cover the meat.

In curing a less quantity than a full tierce of Boneless Rolled Shoulders, cut down the amount of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar, and Salt and the quantity of water, according to the number of Boneless Shoulders to be cured.

Quantity of Brine for Curing Less Than 100 Lbs. of Boneless Rolled Shoulders

The same directions should be followed in curing less than 100 lbs. of Boneless Rolled Shoulders as are given for Hams.

The Use of Molasses and Syrup Barrels in Curing Boneless Rolled Shoulders

The remarks concerning the use of these barrels in curing Hams apply with equal force to the curing of Boneless Rolled Shoulders.

The shape of Vats for Curing Boneless Rolled Shoulders

See concerning the Shape of Vats for curing Hams, as the same remarks apply in curing Boneless Rolled Shoulders.

How to Overhaul Boneless Rolled Shoulders When Cured in Open Packages

See and follow the same instructions for overhauling as are given for overhauling Hams when curing in open packages.

Pumping Boneless Rolled Shoulders

This should not be neglected. See “Directions for Pumping” and follow the directions closely. The Pumping of Boneless Rolled Shoulders is very important because when they are Boned and Rolled, most of the outside surface is covered with Rind, which prevents the Brine from getting through to the meat.

However, by rubbing the inside of the Shoulder with the Curing Mixture and then Pumping them before Curing, good results will always be assured.

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SUGAR-CURED BREAKFAST BACON

Light Bellies

Use for 100 lbs. Light Bellies.

5 lbs. of Common Salt.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
5 gallons of Cold Water.
Cure in this brine 20 to 25 days.

Heavy Bellies

Use for 100 lbs. Medium or Heavy Bellies.

7 lbs. Common Salt.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
2 lbs. Granulated Sugar.
5 gals. Cold Water.
Cure in this brine 25 to 40 days, according to size.

First:—Mix together the proper proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt, as stated above for every 100 lbs. of Bellies.

Second:—Take a perfectly clean tierce, tub, or vat, and sprinkle a little of the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar, and Salt on the bottom. The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or brown sugar must not be used.

When adulterated sugar is used, the brine becomes thick in two weeks; but when Pure Granulated Sugar is used, it will last quite a while, depending upon the condition in which the brine is kept.

Third:—Take half of the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar, and Salt and rub each piece of Belly 63 with the mixture and then pack as loosely as possible.

Fourth:—Put clean boards over the top of the Bellies and fasten or weight the boards down so as to keep them covered with the brine.

Fifth:—All of the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar, and Salt that is left after rubbing the meat should be used for making the brine.

Sixth:—For every 100 lbs. of Bellies packed in the tierce, tub, or vat, add not less than 5 gallons of brine and pour it over the meat. Five gallons of water by measure or forty-two pounds by weight, will make sufficient brine to cover and is the proper amount for every 100 lbs. of Bellies.

Seventh:—Before putting the water over the Bellies, dissolve in it the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt left after rubbing; stir it for a few minutes until it is thoroughly dissolved, and then pour this brine over the Bellies.

Eighth:—Bellies must be overhauled three times while curing—once on the fifth day; again seven days later, and again in ten days more. Overhauling must never be neglected if good results are desired.

Overhauling means taking the meat out of the brine and repack it in the same brine. The proper way to overhaul is to take a perfectly clean tierce or vat, set it next to the tierce or vat of Bellies to be overhauled, pack the meat into the empty package and then pour the same brine over the meat.

PUMPING BREAKFAST BACON

Many Packers pump Breakfast Bacon when it is put into the brine, and we can heartily recommend this, as Bacon that is properly pumped will be cured in one half the time and it will have a uniform cure and color throughout and will be as well cured on the inside as the outside.

Great care, however, should be exercised in making the pumping pickle. It must be made according to the same formula given for Pumping Hams. The pieces of Bacon should be pumped in from three to five places, according to the size of the piece. Very large pieces, especially if the rib is left in them, can be pumped several times more.

CORNED-BEEF

Few Butchers realize the importance of building up a reputation on good Corned Beef.

Good trade on Corned Beef enables the dealer to get higher prices for Plates, Rumps, Briskets, and other cuts which otherwise would have to be sold at a sacrifice. Corned Beef cured by the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process will have a Delicious Corned Beef Flavor, a Fine, Red, Cured-Meat Color, will not be too Salty.

To obtain the best results in curing Corned Beef, it is always advisable to first soak the meat for a few hours in a tub of fresh cold water to which a few handfuls of salt have been added.

This will draw out the blood which would otherwise get into the brine. The membrane on the inside of the Plates and Flanks should be removed and the Strip of Gristle cut off the edge of the Belly Side.

If any part is tainted, moldy, discolored, or slimy, it must be trimmed off, so no slimy or tainted parts will get into the brine.

If Plates or Briskets are to be rolled, a small amount of mixed Zanzibar Brand Corned Beef Seasoning, Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt must be sprinkled on the inside before rolling them. This will give the meat a Delicious Flavor and results in a Nice Red Color and will cure it more uniformly and quickly.

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING FINE CORNED BEEF

Use for 100 lbs.

Plates, Rumps, Briskets, etc.

5 lbs. of Common Salt.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
2 lbs. of Granulated Cane Sugar.
6-8 ozs. Z. B. Corned Beef Seasoning.
5 gals. of Cold Water.

Cure the meat in this brine for 15 to 30 days, according to the weight and thickness of the piece.

Retail Butchers who cure Corned Beef in small quantities, and who from day to day take out pieces from the brine and add others, should make the brine and handle the Corned Beef as follows:

To every five gallons of water add five pounds of common salt, one pound of Freeze-Em-Pickle, and two pounds of granulated sugar. In summer, if the temperature of the curing room or cooler cannot be kept down as low as 40 degrees, then use one pound of sugar for five gallons of water.

If the cooler is kept below 40 degrees, use two pounds of sugar. In winter the curing can always be done at a temperature of 36 to 38 degrees, and then two pounds of sugar to five gallons of water should always be used. The sugar must be Pure Granulated Sugar. Yellow or Brown Sugar must not be used.

When adulterated sugar is used, the brine becomes thick in two weeks, but when pure granulated sugar is used it will last quite a while, depending largely upon the conditions under which the brine is kept.

THE SEASONING OF CORNED BEEF

It is simple enough to add Seasoning to the corned beef, but the ability to decide what proportion of just what spices, etc., will produce the most desirable flavor requires ripe judgment and long experience.

There are many butchers today who could greatly improve their corned beef if they but knew more about the proper seasoning and the proportions to use. We have worked out this problem for him in our special Corned Beef Flavor. It is a splendid combination of just those spices, etc., most suited for seasoning corned beef, and imparts a most zestful and appetizing flavor.

This flavor should be added by tying it up in a piece of cheesecloth and allowing it to lay in the brine which contains the corned beef. This will flavor the brine and thus the corned beef becomes uniformly and thoroughly seasoned without any particles of the seasoning adhering to the meat.

HOW TO KNOW WHEN CORNED BEEF IS NOT FULLY CURED

If a piece of Corned Beef is cut, before or after it is cooked, and the inside is not a nice red color, it is because the meat is not cured through. It is often sold in this condition, but it should not be, as it does not have the proper flavor unless it has been cured all the way through, which requires two or three weeks in a mild brine, depending upon the size of the piece of meat.

Corned Beef pickled for four or five days in a strong brine, with an excessive amount of saltpetre in it, as some butchers cure it, is not good Corned Beef and does not have the proper flavor, although it may be red through to the center, the color being due to the large amount of saltpetre used in the brine.

The Freeze-Em-Pickle Process of curing gives the meat a different and better flavor.

 

PUMPING CORNED BEEF

We recommend Pumping Corned Beef with a Pickle Pump before it is put into the brine. In this way, the meat is cured in about half the time and it will be cured from the inside just the same as from the outside and will be more uniform in color throughout than if cured without pumping. If Corned Beef is pumped, it should be pumped with the same pickle as for pumping Hams, formula.

The pieces of Corned Beef should be pumped in from two to four places, according to the size of the piece of meat. One will soon become accustomed to it, after pumping a few pieces. Pumping can of course be overdone, and too much brine must not be pumped into the meat; otherwise, it will puff out too much and become spongy.

GARLIC FLAVORED CORNED BEEF

Many people like Garlic Flavor in Corned Beef and butchers who want to please their customers should keep a supply of Corned Beef both with and without Garlic Flavor.

We make a special preparation, known as Vacuum Brand Garlic Compound, with which butchers are able to give a Garlic Flavor to any kind of meat, without having any of the objectionable features that result from the use of fresh Garlic.

Vacuum Brand Garlic Compound is a powder which we manufacture from Selected Garlic. The flavor given by it is delicious, and the advantages gained by it will be thoroughly appreciated by all who use it.


DIRECTION FOR MAKING COOKED CORNED BEEF

Take fully cured Corned Beef and cut it up into different sizes, and pack it nicely into a cooked corned beef press, sprinkling a little Zanzibar Brand Corned Beef Seasoning between each layer of meat so as to give it a delicious flavor. All Butchers’ Supply Houses sell presses made especially for this purpose.

After packing the pieces of Meat into the press, screw it up tight; then put the press which has been filled, into hot water, of a temperature of 180 F., and leave it there for one and a half hours, then reduce the temperature to 170 degrees and leave it there for one hour longer.

A very large press might require three hours of cooking before the meat would be cooked through. After the meat is thoroughly cooked, place the press in the cooler and let it remain there overnight. The following morning the Corned Beef will be thoroughly chilled and can be taken out of the press.

In the summer it is a good plan to dip the cake of Cooked Corned Beef, after it is removed from the press, into Hot Lard for a second or even Hot Tallow. This will coat it so it will not become moldy, and it will keep much better than without dipping it.

Pressed Cooked Corned Beef is an elegant article, is a good seller and very often women would be only too pleased to be able to buy this from the butcher and would be willing to pay good prices for it if they could only obtain it. Butchers should give more attention to preparations of this kind, as they would help greatly in developing business.

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING FANCY DRIED BEEF

How to Cure Beef Hams and Shoulder Clots

SMALL PIECES

Use for 100 lbs.

Small Beef Hams and Shoulder Clots

6 lbs. of Common Salt.
2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
5 gals. of Cold Water.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
Cure in this brine for 50 to 60 days.

MEDIUM PIECES

Use for 100 lbs.

Medium Beef Hams and Shoulder Clots

7 lbs. of Common Salt.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
5 gals. of Cold Water.
Cure in this brine for 60 to 70 days.

HEAVY PIECES

Use for 100 lbs.

Heavy Beef Hams and Shoulder Clots

8 lbs. of Common Salt.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
5 gals. of Cold Water.
Cure in this brine for 75 to 80 days.

The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or brown sugar must not be used.

First.—Sort the Beef Hams and Clots, separating the Small, Medium, and Large. 70

Second.—Take enough of any one size of the assorted Beef Hams and Clots to fill a tierce which will be 285 lbs.; then thoroughly mix together in a large pail or box, the following proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar, and Salt:

Use for 285 lbs. of Small Beef Hams and Small Clots, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of best Granulated Sugar, and 18 lbs. of Salt.

For 285 lbs. of Medium Beef Hams and Medium Clots, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of Granulated Sugar, and 21 lbs. of Salt.

For 285 lbs. of Heavy Beef Hams and Heavy Clots, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of best Granulated Sugar, and 24 lbs. of Salt.

Curing Beef Hams and Clots in Open Barrels

Follow exactly the same instructions as given for curing Hams in Open Packages.

Quantity of Brine for Curing 100 Lbs. of Beef Hams and Clots

Use the same quantity of Brine and the same amount of Beef Hams and Clots as directed for curing Hams. The same remarks apply as to variations in the size and shape of vats, and in the general handling, as given for Hams.

How to Overhaul Beef Hams and Clots When Curing in Open Packages

Overhaul and handle exactly as directed for Hams.

How to Cure Beef Hams and Clots in Closed Up Tierces

Follow the same directions in every way as given for curing Hams in Closed Up Tierces.

How to Overhaul Beef Hams and Clots When Cured in Closed Up Tierces

Follow exactly the directions for overhauling Hams when cured in Closed Up Tierces.

Pumping Beef Hams and Clots

Follow the general directions for Pumping.

 

ROLLED SPICED BEEF

Take 100 lbs. of boneless Beef Plates and cure them in brine made as follows:

5 gallons of cold water.
5 lbs. of common salt.
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle and
2 lbs. of granulated sugar.

Cure the Plates in this brine for 10 to 30 days in a cooler. The temperature should not be higher than 42 to 44 degrees Fahrenheit, but a 38 to 40 degrees temperature is always the best for curing purposes.

The 5 gallons of brine should be flavored by placing in it about 6 to 8 ounces of Zanzibar Brand Corned Beef Seasoning. After the meat has been fully cured in accordance with the above directions, sprinkle some Corned Beef Seasoning on the meat; then roll the meat and tie it tight with a heavy string. The meat should then be boiled slowly.

Boiled Spiced Beef should be boiled the same as hams, in water that is 155 degrees Fahrenheit.

This Rolled Spiced Beef is sold to customers raw as well as boiled. Many prefer to buy it raw and boil it at home. This style of Corned Beef makes a beautiful display on the counter and butchers will find this a profitable way of working off fat plates.

Meat worked up in this way brings a good price and is a ready seller. Those liking Garlic flavors can also add a small quantity of Garlic Compound or Garlic Condiment.


Meat Curing Sausage Making links:

Meat Curing – Part 1
General Hints For Curing Meats – Part 2
Hints For Handling Of Meats – Part 3
Sausage Making – Part 4
Meat Curing Sausage Making Q&a (a) – Part 5
Meat Curing Sausage Making Q&a (b) – Part 6
Meat Curing Sausage Making Products – Part 7